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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     snmp_client, snmp_send_cb_f, snmp_timeout_cb_f, snmp_timeout_start_f,
     snmp_timeout_stop_f, snmp_open, snmp_close, snmp_pdu_create,
     snmp_add_binding, snmp_pdu_check, snmp_pdu_send, snmp_oid_append,
     snmp_receive, snmp_table_cb_f, snmp_table_fetch, snmp_table_fetch_async,
     snmp_dialog -- SNMP client library

LIBRARY    [Toc]    [Back]

     Begemot SNMP library (libbsnmp, -lbsnmp)

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     #include <asn1.h>
     #include <snmp.h>
     #include <snmpclient.h>

     typedef void
     (*snmp_send_cb_f)(struct snmp_pdu *req, struct snmp_pdu *resp,
	 void *uarg);

     typedef void
     (*snmp_timeout_cb_f)(void *uarg);

     typedef void *
     (*snmp_timeout_start_f)(struct timeval *timeout,
	 snmp_timeout_cb_f callback, void *uarg);

     typedef void
     (*snmp_timeout_stop_f)(void *timeout_id);

     extern struct snmp_client snmp_client;

     snmp_client_init(struct snmp_client *client);

     snmp_client_set_host(struct snmp_client *client, const char *host);

     snmp_client_set_port(struct snmp_client *client, const char *port);

     snmp_open(const char *host, const char *port, const char *read_community,
	 const char *write_community);


     snmp_pdu_create(struct snmp_pdu *pdu, u_int op);

     snmp_add_binding(struct snmp_pdu *pdu, ...);

     snmp_pdu_check(const struct snmp_pdu *req, const struct snmp_pdu *resp);

     snmp_pdu_send(struct snmp_pdu *pdu, snmp_send_cb_f func, void *uarg);

     snmp_oid_append(struct asn_oid *oid, const char *fmt, ...);

     snmp_receive(int blocking);

     typedef void
     (*snmp_table_cb_f)(void *list, void *arg, int res);

     snmp_table_fetch(const struct snmp_table *descr, void *list);

     snmp_table_fetch_async(const struct snmp_table *descr, void *list,
	 snmp_table_cb_f callback, void *uarg);

     snmp_dialog(struct snmp_pdu *req, struct snmp_pdu *resp);

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The SNMP library contains routines to easily build SNMP client applications
 that use SNMP versions 1 or 2. Most of the routines use a struct

	   struct snmp_client {
		   enum snmp_version version;
		   int	   local;  /* use local socket */

		   /* these two are read-only for the application */
		   char    *cport; /* port number as string */
		   char    *chost; /* host name or IP address as string */

		   char    read_community[SNMP_COMMUNITY_MAXLEN + 1];
		   char    write_community[SNMP_COMMUNITY_MAXLEN + 1];

		   struct timeval  timeout;
		   u_int   retries;

		   int	   dump_pdus;

		   size_t  txbuflen;
		   size_t  rxbuflen;

		   int	   fd;

		   int32_t next_reqid;
		   int32_t max_reqid;
		   int32_t min_reqid;

		   char    error[SNMP_STRERROR_LEN];

		   snmp_timeout_start_f timeout_start;
		   snmp_timeout_stop_f timeout_stop;

		   /* private */
		   char    local_path[sizeof(SNMP_LOCAL_PATH)];

     The fields of this structure are described below.

     version	    This is the version of SNMP to use. See bsnmplib(3) for
		    applicable values. The default version is SNMP_V2c.

     local	    If this is set to true, the library opens a UNIX domain
		    socket rather than an UDP socket. It uses the chost field
		    as the path to the server's socket.

     cport	    The SNMP agent's UDP port number. This may be a symbolic
		    port number (from /etc/services or a numeric port number.
		    If this field is NULL (the default) the standard SNMP port
		    is used. This field should not be changed directly but
		    rather by calling snmp_client_set_port().

     chost	    The SNMP agent's host name, IP address or UNIX domain
		    socket path name.  If this is NULL (the default) localhost
		    is assumed. This field should not be changed directly but
		    rather through calling snmp_client_set_host().

		    This is the community name to be used for all requests
		    except SET requests.  The default is `public'.

		    The community name to be used for SET requests. The
		    default is `private'.

     timeout	    The maximum time to wait for responses to requests. If the
		    time elapses, the request is resent up to retries times.
		    The default is 3 seconds.

     retries	    Number of times a request PDU is to be resent. If set to
		    0, the request is sent only once. The default is 3

     dump_pdus	    If set to a non-zero value all received and sent PDUs are
		    dumped via snmp_pdu_dump(3).  The default is not to dump

     txbuflen	    The encoding buffer size to be allocated for transmitted
		    PDUs. The default is 10000 octets.

     rxbuflen	    The decoding buffer size to be allocated for received
		    PDUs. This is the size of the maximum PDU that can be
		    received. The default is 10000 octets.

     fd 	    After calling snmp_open() this is the file socket file
		    descriptor used for sending and receiving PDUs.

     next_reqid     The request id of the next PDU to send. Used internal by
		    the library.

     max_reqid	    The maximum request id to use for outging PDUs. The
		    default is INT32_MAX.

     min_reqid	    The minimum request id to use for outgoing PDUs. Request
		    ids are allocated linerily starting at min_reqid up to

     error	    If an error happens, this field is set to a printable
		    string describing the error.

     timeout_start  This field must point to a function setting up a one shot
		    timeout. After the timeout has elapsed, the given callback
		    function must be called with the user argument. The
		    timeout_start() function must return a void * identifying
		    the timeout.

     timeout_stop   This field must be set to a function that stops a running
		    timeout. The function will be called with the return value
		    of the corresponding timeout_start() function.

     local_path     If in local socket mode, the name of the clients socket.
		    Not needed by the application.

     In the current implementation there is a global variable

	   extern struct snmp_client snmp_client;

     that is used by all the library functions. The first call into the
     library must be a call to snmp_client_init() to initialize this global
     variable to the default values.  After this call and before calling
     snmp_open() the fields of the variable may be modified by the user.  The
     modification of the chost and cport fields should be done only via the
     functions snmp_client_set_host() and snmp_client_set_port().

     The function snmp_open() creates a UDP or UNIX domain socket and connects
     it to the agent's IP address and port.  If any of the arguments of the
     call is not NULL the corresponding field in the global snmp_client is set
     from the argument. Otherwise the values that are already in that variable
     are used.	The function snmp_close() closes the socket, stops all timeouts
 and frees all dynamically allocated resources.

     The next three functions are used to create request PDUs. The function
     snmp_pdu_create() initializes a PDU of type op.  It does not allocate
     space for the PDU itself. This is the responsibility of the caller.
     snmp_add_binding() adds bindings to the PDU and returns the (zero based)
     index of the first new binding. The arguments are pairs of pointer to the
     OIDs and syntax constants, terminated by a NULL. The call

	       &oid1, SNMP_SYNTAX_INTEGER,

     adds two new bindings to the PDU and returns the index of the first one.
     It is the responsibility of the caller to set the value part of the binding
 if neccesary. The functions returns -1 if the maximum number of bindings
 is exhausted.  The function snmp_oid_append() can be used to construct
 variable OIDs for requests. It takes a pointer to an struct
     asn_oid that is to be constructed, a format string, and a number of arguments
 the type of which depends on the format string. The format string
     is interpreted character by character in the following way:

     i	  This format expects an argument of type asn_subid_t and appends this
	  as a single integer to the OID.

     a	  This format expects an argument of type struct in_addr and appends
	  to four parts of the IP address to the OID.

     s	  This format expects an argument of type const char * and appends the
	  length of the string (as computed by strlen(3)) and each of the
	  characters in the string to the OID.

     (N)  This format expects no argument.  N must be a decimal number and is
	  stored into an internal variable size.

     b	  This format expects an argument of type const char * and appends
	  size characters from the string to the OID. The string may contain
	  NUL characters.

     c	  This format expects two arguments: one of type size_t and one of
	  type const u_char *.	The first argument gives the number of bytes
	  to append to the OID from the string pointed to by the second argument.

     The function snmp_pdu_check() may be used to check a response PDU. A number
 of checks are performed (error code, equal number of bindings, syntaxes
 and values for SET PDUs).  The function returns +1 if everything is
     ok, 0 if a NOSUCHNAME or similar error was detected, -1 if the response
     PDU had fatal errors and -2 if resp is NULL (a timeout occured).

     The function snmp_pdu_send() encodes and sends the given PDU. It records
     the PDU together with the callback and user pointers in an internal list
     and arranges for retransmission if no response is received. When a
     response is received or the retransmission count is exceeded the callback
     func is called with the orignal request PDU, the response PDU and the
     user argument uarg.  If the retransmit count is exceeded, func is called
     with the original request PDU, the reponse pointer set to NULL and the
     user argument uarg.  The caller should not free the request PDU until the
     callback function is called. The callback function must free the request
     PDU and the response PDU (if not NULL ).

     The function snmp_receive() tries to receive a PDU. If the argument is
     zero, the function polls to see whether a packet is available, if the
     argument is non-zero, the function blocks until the next packet is
     received. The packet is delivered via the usual callback mechanism (nonresponse
 packets are silently dropped).  The function returns 0, if a
     packet was received and successfully dispatched, -1 if an error occured
     or no packet was available (in polling mode).

     The next two functions are used to retrieve tables from SNMP agents. The
     use the following input structure, that describes the table:

	   struct snmp_table {
		   struct asn_oid	   table;
		   struct asn_oid	   last_change;
		   u_int		   max_iter;
		   size_t		   entry_size;
		   u_int		   index_size;
		   u_int64_t		   req_mask;

		   struct snmp_table_entry {
		       asn_subid_t	   subid;
		       enum snmp_syntax    syntax;
		       off_t		   offset;
		   }			   entries[];

     The fields of this structure have the following meaning:

     table	  This is the base OID of the table.

     last_change  Some tables have a scalar variable of type TIMETICKS
		  attached to them, that holds the time when the table was
		  last changed. This OID should be the OID of this variable
		  (without the .0 index). When the table is retrieved with
		  multiple GET requests, and the variable changes between two
		  request, the table fetch is restarted.

     max_iter	  Maximum number of tries to fetch the table.

     entry_size   The table fetching routines return a list of structure one
		  for each table row. This variable is the size of one structure
 and used to malloc(3) the structure.

     index_size   This is the number of index columns in the table.

     req_mask	  This is a bit mask with a 1 for each table column that is
		  required.  Bit 0 corresponds to the first element (index 0)
		  in the array entries, bit 1 to the second (index 1) and so
		  on. SNMP tables may be sparse. For sparse columns the bit
		  should not be set. If the bit for a given column is set and
		  the column value cannot be retrieved for a given row, the
		  table fetch is restarted assuming that the table is currently
 beeing modified by the agent.	The bits for the index
		  columns are ignored.

     entries	  This is a variable sized array of column descriptors. This
		  array is terminated by an element with syntax
		  SNMP_SYNTAX_NULL.  The first index_size elements describe
		  all the index columns of the table, the rest are normal columns.
 If for a the column at `entries[N]' the expression
		  `req_mask & (1 << N)' yields true, the column is considered
		  a required column.  The fields of this the array elements
		  have the following meaning:

		  subid   This is the OID subid of the column. This is ignored
			  for index entries. Index entries are decoded according
 to the syntax field.

		  syntax  This is the syntax of the column or index. A syntax
			  of SNMP_SYNTAX_NULL terminates the array.

		  offset  This is the starting offset of the value of the column
 in the return structures.  This field can be set
			  with the ISO-C offsetof() macro.

     Both table fetching functions return TAILQ (see queue(3)) of structures--one
 for each table row. These structures must start with a
     TAILQ_ENTRY() and a u_int64_t and are allocated via malloc(3).  The list
     argument of the table functions must point to a TAILQ_HEAD().  The
     u_int64_t fields, usually called found is used to indicate which of the
     columns have been found for the given row. It is encoded like the
     req_mask field.

     The function snmp_table_fetch() synchronuosly fetches the given table. If
     everything is ok 0 is returned.  Otherwise the function returns -1 and
     sets an appropriate error string.	The function snmp_table_fetch_async()
     fetches the tables asynchronuosly. If either the entire table is fetch,
     or an error occures the callback function callback is called with the
     callers arguments list and uarg and a parameter that is either 0 if the
     table was fetched, or -1 if there was an error. The function itself
     returns -1 if it could not initialize fetching of the table.

     The following table description is used to fetch the ATM interface table:

	    * ATM interface table
	   struct atmif {
		   TAILQ_ENTRY(atmif) link;
		   u_int64_t	   found;
		   int32_t	   index;
		   u_char	   *ifname;
		   size_t	   ifnamelen;
		   u_int32_t	   node_id;
		   u_int32_t	   pcr;
		   int32_t	   media;
		   u_int32_t	   vpi_bits;
		   u_int32_t	   vci_bits;
		   u_int32_t	   max_vpcs;
		   u_int32_t	   max_vccs;
		   u_char	   *esi;
		   size_t	   esilen;
		   int32_t	   carrier;
	   TAILQ_HEAD(atmif_list, atmif);

	   /* list of all ATM interfaces */
	   struct atmif_list atmif_list;

	   static const struct snmp_table atmif_table = {
		   OIDX_begemotAtmIfTableLastChange, 2,
		   sizeof(struct atmif),
		   1, 0x7ffULL,
			   offsetof(struct atmif, index) },
			   offsetof(struct atmif, ifname) },
		     { 2, SNMP_SYNTAX_GAUGE,
			   offsetof(struct atmif, node_id) },
		     { 3, SNMP_SYNTAX_GAUGE,
			   offsetof(struct atmif, pcr) },
			   offsetof(struct atmif, media) },
		     { 5, SNMP_SYNTAX_GAUGE,
			   offsetof(struct atmif, vpi_bits) },
		     { 6, SNMP_SYNTAX_GAUGE,
			   offsetof(struct atmif, vci_bits) },
		     { 7, SNMP_SYNTAX_GAUGE,
			   offsetof(struct atmif, max_vpcs) },
		     { 8, SNMP_SYNTAX_GAUGE,
			   offsetof(struct atmif, max_vccs) },
			   offsetof(struct atmif, esi) },
			   offsetof(struct atmif, carrier) },
		     { 0, SNMP_SYNTAX_NULL, 0 }

		   if (snmp_table_fetch(&atmif_table, &atmif_list) != 0)
			   errx(1, "AtmIf table: %s", snmp_client.error);

     The function snmp_dialog() is used to execute a synchonuous dialog with
     the agent. The request PDU req is sent and the function blocks until the
     response PDU is received. Note, that asynchonuous receives are handled
     (i.e. callback functions of other send calls or table fetches may be
     called while in the function). The response PDU is returned in resp.  If
     no reponse could be received after all timeouts and retries, the function
     returns -1. If a response was received 0 is returned.

DIAGNOSTICS    [Toc]    [Back]

     If an error occures in any of the function an error indication as
     described above is returned. Additionally the function sets a printable
     error string in the error filed of snmp_client.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     snmpd(1), gensnmptree(1), bsnmplib(3) bsnmpagent(3)

STANDARDS    [Toc]    [Back]

     This implementation conforms to the applicable IETF RFCs and ITU-T recommendations.

AUTHORS    [Toc]    [Back]

     Hartmut Brandt <brandt@fokus.gmd.de>
     Kendy Kutzner <kutzner@fokus.gmd.de>

FreeBSD 5.2.1			August 15, 2002 		 FreeBSD 5.2.1
[ Back ]
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