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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     printf -- formatted output

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     printf format [arguments ...]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The printf utility formats and prints its arguments, after the first,
     under control of the format.  The format is a character string which contains
 three types of objects: plain characters, which are simply copied
     to standard output, character escape sequences which are converted and
     copied to the standard output, and format specifications, each of which
     causes printing of the next successive argument.

     The arguments after the first are treated as strings if the corresponding
     format is either c, b or s; otherwise it is evaluated as a C constant,
     with the following extensions:

	   +o   A leading plus or minus sign is allowed.
	   +o   If the leading character is a single or double quote, the value
	       is the ASCII code of the next character.

     The format string is reused as often as necessary to satisfy the
     arguments.  Any extra format specifications are evaluated with zero or
     the null string.

     Character escape sequences are in backslash notation as defined in the
     ANSI X3.159-1989 (``ANSI C''), with extensions.  The characters and their
     meanings are as follows:

	   \a	   Write a <bell> character.
	   \b	   Write a <backspace> character.
	   \c	   Ignore remaining characters in this string.
	   \f	   Write a <form-feed> character.
	   \n	   Write a <new-line> character.
	   \r	   Write a <carriage return> character.
	   \t	   Write a <tab> character.
	   \v	   Write a <vertical tab> character.
	   \'	   Write a <single quote> character.
	   \\	   Write a backslash character.
	   \0num   Write an 8-bit character whose ASCII value is the 1-, 2-,
		   or 3-digit octal number num.

     Each format specification is introduced by the percent character (``%'').
     The remainder of the format specification includes, in the following

     Zero or more of the following flags:

	     #	     A `#' character specifying that the value should be
		     printed in an ``alternate form''.	For c, d, and s, formats,
 this option has no effect.  For the o formats the
		     precision of the number is increased to force the first
		     character of the output string to a zero.	For the x (X)
		     format, a non-zero result has the string 0x (0X)
		     prepended to it.  For e, E, f, g, and G, formats, the
		     result will always contain a decimal point, even if no
		     digits follow the point (normally, a decimal point only
		     appears in the results of those formats if a digit follows
 the decimal point).  For g and G formats, trailing
		     zeros are not removed from the result as they would otherwise

	     -	     A minus sign `-' which specifies left adjustment of the
		     output in the indicated field;

	     +	     A `+' character specifying that there should always be a
		     sign placed before the number when using signed formats.

	     ` '     A space specifying that a blank should be left before a
		     positive number for a signed format.  A `+' overrides a
		     space if both are used;

	     0	     A zero `0' character indicating that zero-padding should
		     be used rather than blank-padding.  A `-' overrides a `0'
		     if both are used;

     Field Width:
	     An optional digit string specifying a field width; if the output
	     string has fewer characters than the field width it will be
	     blank-padded on the left (or right, if the left-adjustment indicator
 has been given) to make up the field width (note that a
	     leading zero is a flag, but an embedded zero is part of a field

	     An optional period, `.', followed by an optional digit string
	     giving a precision which specifies the number of digits to appear
	     after the decimal point, for e and f formats, or the maximum number
 of characters to be printed from a string; if the digit
	     string is missing, the precision is treated as zero;

	     A character which indicates the type of format to use (one of

     A field width or precision may be `*' instead of a digit string.  In this
     case an argument supplies the field width or precision.

     The format characters and their meanings are:

     diouXx	 The argument is printed as a signed decimal (d or i),
		 unsigned octal, unsigned decimal, or unsigned hexadecimal (X
		 or x), respectively.

     f		 The argument is printed in the style `[-]ddd.ddd' where the
		 number of d's after the decimal point is equal to the precision
 specification for the argument.  If the precision is
		 missing, 6 digits are given; if the precision is explicitly
		 0, no digits and no decimal point are printed.

     eE 	 The argument is printed in the style e `[-d.ddd+-dd]' where
		 there is one digit before the decimal point and the number
		 after is equal to the precision specification for the argument;
 when the precision is missing, 6 digits are produced.
		 An upper-case E is used for an `E' format.

     gG 	 The argument is printed in style f or in style e (E) whichever
 gives full precision in minimum space.

     c		 The first character of argument is printed.

     s		 Characters from the string argument are printed until the end
		 is reached or until the number of characters indicated by the
		 precision specification is reached; however if the precision
		 is 0 or missing, all characters in the string are printed.

     b		 As for s, but interpret character escapes in backslash notation
 in the string argument.

     %		 Print a `%'; no argument is used.

     The decimal point character is defined in the program's locale (category

     In no case does a non-existent or small field width cause truncation of a
     field; padding takes place only if the specified field width exceeds the
     actual width.

DIAGNOSTICS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The printf utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

COMPATIBILITY    [Toc]    [Back]

     The traditional BSD behavior of converting arguments of numeric formats
     not beginning with a digit to the ASCII code of the first character is
     not supported.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     echo(1), printf(3)

STANDARDS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The printf command is expected to be compatible with the IEEE Std 1003.2
     (``POSIX.2'') specification.

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     The printf command appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno.  It is modeled after the
     standard library function, printf(3).

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     Since the floating point numbers are translated from ASCII to floatingpoint
 and then back again, floating-point precision may be lost.

     ANSI hexadecimal character constants were deliberately not provided.

     The escape sequence \000 is the string terminator.  When present in the
     format, the format will be truncated at the \000 character.

FreeBSD 5.2.1			 June 6, 1993			 FreeBSD 5.2.1
[ Back ]
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