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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       more, page - Displays a file one screenful at a time

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

   Current Syntax
       more    [-NWcdefhiqrsuvxz]    [-n   number]   [-p command]
       [+line_number  | [-t tagstring] +/pattern] [file...]

       page    [-NWcdefhiqrsuvxz]    [-n number]     [-p command]
       [+line_number  | +/pattern] [-t tagstring] [file...]

   Obsolescent Syntax    [Toc]    [Back]
       more   [-NWcdefhiqrsuvxz]   [-number]   [-p command]  [+G]
       [+line_number  | +/pattern] [-t tagstring] [file...]

       page  [-NWcdefhiqrsuvxz]   [-number]   [-p command]   [+G]
       [+line_number  | +/pattern] [-t tagstring] [file...]

       The  more command invokes a filter that allows examination
       of  continuous  text,  one  screenful  at  a  time,  on  a
       soft-copy terminal.

       [Tru64  UNIX]  The page command is equivalent to more, but
       erases the screen before displaying each screenful.

STANDARDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Interfaces documented on this reference  page  conform  to
       industry standards as follows:

       more:  XCU5.0

       Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information
 about industry standards and associated tags.

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Suppresses line numbering.  The default display, with line
       numbers,  can  slow the more command's performance on very
       large input files. The line numbering feature displays the
       line number in the = subcommand and passes the line number
       to the editor (if it is the vi editor.  Provides  optional
       extensions  to  the more command. Currently, the following
       two options are supported:

              notite Prevents the more command from  sending  the
              terminal  initialization  string  before displaying
              the file.  This argument  also  prevents  the  more
              command from sending the terminal de-initialization
              string before exiting.

              tite Causes the more command to send  the  initialization
   and  the  de-initialization  strings,  by
              default.  Starts each screenful at the top  of  the
              screen  and  erases  existing  output  on each line
              before  displaying  a  new   line.    This   avoids
              scrolling  the  screen,  making  it  easier to read
              while more is writing.   It  is  also  faster  than
              scrolling   on  many  terminals.   This  option  is
              ignored if the terminal does not have  the  ability
              to  clear  to  the end of a line.  This option does
              not work with -h.   [Tru64  UNIX]  Prompts  you  to
              continue, quit, or obtain help after each screenful
              of text.  Exits immediately after writing the  last
              line of the last file in the argument list.  [Tru64
              UNIX]  Counts  logical  lines  rather  than  screen
              lines;  that  is,  long lines are not folded.  This
              option is recommended  if  nroff  output  is  piped
              through ul, or if more reads any text that contains
              escape sequences.  Escape sequences contain characters
 that would ordinarily occupy screen positions,
              but which do not print when they are  sent  to  the
              terminal as part of an escape sequences.  Thus more
              may think that lines are longer than they  actually
              are,    and   fold   lines   erroneously.    [Tru64
              UNIX]  Help  mode.   Perform  pattern  matching  in
              searches  without  regard  to  case.  Specifies the
              number of lines per screenful.  The number argument
              is a positive decimal integer.  The -n option overrides
 any values  obtained  from  the  environment.
              For  each file examined, initially execute the more
              command in the command argument.  If the command is
              a  positioning  command, such as a line number or a
              regular expression search, set the current position
              to  represent  the  final  results  of the command,
              without writing any intermediate lines of the file.
              For example, the two commands: more -p 1000j file

              more -p 1000G file

              would  be equivalent and start the display with the
              current position at line 1000, bypassing the  lines
              that  j would write and scroll off the screen if it
              had been issued during the  file  examination.   If
              the  positioning command is unsuccessful, the first
              line in the file  will  be  the  current  position.
              [Tru64  UNIX]  Requires  an  explicit quit command,
              rather than quitting automatically, when the spacebar
   is   hit   at   the   end  of  file.   [Tru64
              UNIX]  Ignores most control characters that it does
              not interpret in some way.  Control characters that
              are not understood are displayed as ^C where C represents
  any  such  character.   Squeezes  multiple
              empty lines from the  output,  producing  only  one
              empty  line.  Especially helpful when viewing nroff
              output, this option maximizes the amount of  useful
              information present on the screen.  Suppresses processing
 of underlined text  for  terminal  display.
              Normally,  more  handles  underlining  in  a manner
              appropriate to the particular terminal: if the terminal
  can  perform  underlining or has a highlight
              mode, more outputs appropriate escape sequences  to
              enable underlining or highlight mode for underlined
              information in the source file.  Write the  screenful
  of  the  file  containing the tag named by the
              tagstring argument.   See  the  ctags(1)  reference
              page.   [Tru64  UNIX]  Does not display nonprinting
              characters graphically. Without  this  option,  all
              non-ASCII  and  control  characters  (except <Tab>,
              <Backspace>, and <Return>) are displayed visibly in
              the  form  ^X  for  <Ctrl-x>,  or M-x for non-ASCII
              character x.  Set the tabstops every tabs position.
              The  default  value  for  the  tabs  argument is 8.
              [Tru64 UNIX]  Same as  if  the  -v  option  is  not
              given, but in addition, <Backspace> is displayed as
              ^H, <Return>  as  ^M,  and  <Tab>  as  ^I.   [Tru64
              UNIX]  Starts    up    at    line_number.    [Tru64
              UNIX]  Starts up at the last screenful in the file.
              This  gives  you  an  opportunity to scroll or page
              backward through the file.  Starts up at  the  line
              containing  the regular expression pattern.  [Tru64
              UNIX]  Sets the number of lines in the display window
  to number.  The default is two lines less than
              the number of lines displayed by the terminal; on a
              screen that displays 24 lines, the default is 22.

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       The more utility reads files and either writes them to the
       terminal on a page-by-page basis or filters them to  standard
 output.  If standard output is not a terminal device,
       all input files are copied to  standard  output  in  their
       entirety,  without  modification.  If standard output is a
       terminal device, the files are displayed  (one  screenful)
       at  a  time  under the control of user commands.  The more
       command pauses when it encounters a page  break  (embedded
       ^L) in text.

       The  number of lines available per screen is determined by
       the -n option, if specified, or by examining values in the
       environment   (see  ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLES).   If  neither
       method yields a number, an unspecified number of lines  is
       displayed.  The actual number of lines written is one less
       than this number, as the last line of the screen  is  used
       to display a user prompt and user input.  If the number of
       lines available per screen is less than four, the  results
       are undefined.

       If  the  terminal type can be determined, the more command
       looks in the terminfo database to determine terminal characteristics,
 and to determine the default window size.  On
       a terminal capable of displaying  24  lines,  the  default
       window size is 22 lines.

       If  the  program  is  invoked  as page, then the screen is
       cleared before each screenful is printed (but  only  if  a
       full  screenful  is  being  printed), and k minus 1 rather
       than k minus 2 lines are printed in each screenful,  where
       k is the number of lines the terminal can display.

SUBCOMMANDS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  more  command provides the following subcommands that
       you  can  type  when  more  pauses.   These  commands  are
       designed to be similar to the commands supported by the vi
       editor; (i is an optional integer argument, defaulting  to
       1.)   Regular   expressions  (as  referred  to  here)  are
       described under grep.  All  three  forms  display  i  more
       lines.   Displays  i more lines, or another screenful if i
       is not specified.  Scrolls one-half screen  forward  (displays
  the  next k/2 lines, where k is the number of lines
       displayed by the <Space> command).   If  i  is  specified,
       then  the  scroll  size  is  set  to i.  Same as <Ctrl-d>.
       Scrolls one-half screen backward.  If i is specified, then
       the  scroll size is set to i.  Note that if your line kill
       character is <Ctrl-u>, then you must use the u command  to
       scroll  backward.  Same as <Ctrl-u>.  Scroll back i lines.
       Same as <Ctrl-y>.  Displays i more lines.  Goes to line  i
       and  displays  a  screenful, making line i the top line on
       the screen.  If i is not specified, then more displays the
       first  screenful  in  the  file.   Skips  i screenfuls and
       prints a screenful.  Skips i lines and prints a screenful.
       Skips  back  i screenfuls and prints a screenful.  Same as
       b.  Exits from more.  Displays the  current  line  number.
       Starts  up  the vi editor at the current line.  Displays a
       description of all the more subcommands.  Searches for the
       ith  occurrence  of the regular expression expression.  If
       there are less than i occurrences of expression,  and  the
       input  is  a file rather than a pipe, then the position in
       the file remains unchanged.   Otherwise,  a  screenful  is
       displayed, starting with the line matching expression. You
       can use Erase and Kill  characters  to  edit  the  regular
       expression,  which must be terminated by pressing <Return>
       (with no trailing / character).   Erasing  back  past  the
       first column cancels the search command.  If expression is
       null, more uses the last regular expression entered.  Same
       as /, but searches backward in the file.  Searches for the
       ith occurrence of the  last  regular  expression  entered.
       Searches  for  the  ith  occurrence  of  the  last regular
       expression entered, but reverses  the  direction  of  that
       search.   Returns  to the point from which the last search
       started.  If no search was performed in the current  file,
       returns  to  the  beginning  of the file.  Invokes a shell
       with command.  The % (percent sign)  and  !   (exclamation
       point) characters in command are replaced with the current
       file name and the previous  shell  command,  respectively.
       If  there is no current file name, % is not expanded.  The
       sequences \% and \!  are replaced  by  %  and  !,  respectively.
   Skips to the ith next file specified in the command
 line.  Skips to the ith previous file  given  in  the
       command  line.  If this command is given during display of
       a file, more returns to the beginning  of  the  file.   If
       more  is  not  reading  from  a file, the bell is rung and
       nothing else happens.  Displays the current file name  and
       line  number.   Exits from more (same as q or Q).  Repeats
       the previous command.  Redraws the screen.  Displays  help

       The  commands take effect immediately; it is not necessary
       to type a carriage-return.  Up to the time when  the  command
  character  itself  is  given, you can enter the line
       Kill character to  cancel  the  numerical  argument  being
       formed.  In addition, you can enter the Erase character to
       redisplay the prompt.

       At any time when output is being sent to the terminal, you
       can  press  q.  The more command stops sending output, and
       displays the usual prompt.  You can then enter one of  the
       preceding  commands  in the normal manner.  Some output is
       lost when this is done, due to the fact that  any  characters
  waiting  in  the terminal's output queue are flushed
       when the QUIT signal occurs.

       The terminal is set to noecho mode by this program so that
       the output can be continuous.  Thus, subcommands you enter
       do not show on your terminal, except for the / (slash),  ?
       (question mark), and !  (exclamation point) commands.

EXIT STATUS    [Toc]    [Back]

       The following exit values are returned: Successful completion.
  An error occurred.

INPUT FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

       The input files being examined  must  be  text  files.  If
       standard  output  is a terminal, standard error is used to
       read commands from the user.  If standard output is a terminal,
  standard  error is not readable, and command input
       is needed, more terminates with an error  indicating  that
       it  was  unable to read user commands.  If standard output
       is not a terminal, no error results if standard error cannot
 be opened for reading.

EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]

       The  following is a sample use of more in previewing nroff
       output: nroff -ms doc.n | more -s -f


       [Tru64 UNIX]  Normally, you  place  the  command  sequence
       that sets up the environment variables in the files.  Setting
 them in or will prevent possibly unnecessary reevaluation
  of  the variable assignments.  Since it is unlikely
       that you will ever want  to  remotely  execute  more  (for
       example, rsh <host> more), it is not as important to place
       them in the files.

       The following environment variables affect  the  execution
       of  more:  Overrides the system-selected horizontal screen
       size.  Used by the v subcommand to select an  editor.   If
       this  variable  is unset, the editor is /usr/bin/vi.  Provides
 a default value for the  internationalization  variables
  that  are  unset or null. If LANG is unset or null,
       the corresponding value from the default locale  is  used.
       If  any  of  the internationalization variables contain an
       invalid setting, the utility behaves as  if  none  of  the
       variables  had been defined.  If set to a non-empty string
       value, overrides the values of all the other  internationalization
 variables.  Determines the locale for the interpretation
 of sequences of bytes of text data as characters
       (for  example, single-byte as opposed to multibyte characters
 in arguments) and the behavior of  character  classes
       in  regular  expressions..   Determines the locale for the
       format and contents  of  diagnostic  messages  written  to
       standard  error.  Determines the location of message catalogues
 for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.  The LINES variable
  overrides  the system-selected vertical screen size,
       used as the number of lines in a screenful.  The -n option
       takes  precedence  over the LINES variable for determining
       the number of lines in  a  screenful.   The  more  command
       looks  in  the  MORE  environment  variable  to preset any
       desired options; for example, assume that  you  prefer  to
       view  files  using  the -c and -e options. The csh command
       setenv MORE -c -e, or  the  ksh  or  sh  command  sequence
       MORE='-c  -e' ; export MORE would cause all invocations of
       more, including invocations by programs such  as  man  and
       mesg, to use this mode.

              The  MORE variable no longer supports options without
 hyphens.  It only supports  white  space  separated
   hyphenated   variables.   Any  command-line
              options are processed after those in the MORE variable,
  as  if  the  command  line  were: more $MORE
              options operands The TERM variable  determines  the
              name of the terminal type.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

       Terminal information database.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

       Commands:  cat(1),   csh(1),  ctags(1),  grep(1),  ksh(1),
       man(1), nroff(1), pg(1), script(1), Bourne  shell  sh(1b),
       POSIX shell sh(1p), ul(1)

       Files:  terminfo(4)

       Standards:  standards(5)

[ Back ]
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