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mule(1)

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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

       mule - Multilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

       mule [command-line switches] [files...]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

       Mule  is  a  multilingual  enhancement to GNU Emacs.  Mule
       provides a facility to display, input, and edit  multilingual
 characters in addition to all GNU Emacs facilities.

       GNU Emacs is a new version of Emacs, written by the author
       of the original (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman. Its user
       functionality  encompasses  everything other Emacs editors
       do, and it is easily extensible since its editing commands
       are written in Lisp.

       Emacs  has an extensive interactive help facility, but the
       facility assumes that you know  how  to  manipulate  Emacs
       windows  and  buffers. CTRL-h (backspace or CTRL-h) enters
       the Help facility.  Help Tutorial (CTRL-h t)  requests  an
       interactive  tutorial which can teach beginners the fundamentals
 of Emacs in a few minutes. Help Apropos (CTRL-h a)
       helps  you  find  a  command given its functionality, Help
       Character (CTRL-h c) describes a given character's effect,
       and  Help Function (CTRL-h f) describes a given Lisp function
 specified by name.

       Emacs's Undo can undo several  steps  of  modification  to
       your  buffers,  so it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.


       GNU Emacs's many  special  packages  handle  mail  reading
       (RMail)  and  sending  (Mail),  outline editing (Outline),
       compiling (Compile), running subshells within  Emacs  windows
  (Shell),  running a Lisp read-eval-print loop (LispInteraction-Mode),
 and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).

       There is an extensive reference manual, but users of other
       Emacses should have little trouble adapting even without a
       copy.  Users new to Emacs will be able to use  basic  features
  fairly  rapidly  by studying the tutorial and using
       the self-documentation features.

       Emacs Options

       The following options are of general interest: Edit  file.
       Go  to the line specified by number (do not insert a space
       between the "+" sign and the number).  Do not load an init
       file.   Load  user's init file.  Use specified file as the
       terminal instead of using stdin/stdout. This must  be  the
       first argument specified in the command line.

       The following options are lisp-oriented (these options are
       processed in the  order  encountered):  Execute  the  lisp
       function function.  Load the lisp code in the file file.

       The  following  options are useful when running Emacs as a
       batch editor: Edit in batch mode using the commands  found
       in  commandfile.  The editor will send messages to stdout.
       This option must be the first in the argument list.   Exit
       Emacs while in batch mode.

       Using Emacs with X

       Emacs  has  been  tailored  to work well with the X window
       system. If you run Emacs from under  X  windows,  it  will
       create  its own X window to display in.  You will probably
       want to start the editor as a background process  so  that
       you can continue using your original window.

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches: Specifies
 the program name which should be used when looking up
       defaults  in  the  user's  X  resources.  This must be the
       first option specified in the command line.  Specifies the
       name  which  should be assigned to the Emacs window.  Display
 the Emacs window in reverse video.  Use the  "kitchen
       sink"  bitmap  icon when iconifying the Emacs window.  Set
       the Emacs window's fontset to that specified  by  fontset.
       You can specify a fontset just by the name or a comma separated
 list of fonts. In the former case, the actual  contents
  of the fontset should be defined by X's resource or
       Emacslisp function new-fontset.  In  the  latter  case,  a
       fontset of no name is created from the list. You will find
       the various X fonts in the  /usr/lib/X11/fonts  directory.
       Note  that Emacs will only accept fixed width fonts. Under
       the X11 Release 4 font-naming conventions, any  font  with
       the  value  "m"  or  "c" in the eleventh field of the font
       name is a fixed width font.  Furthermore, fonts whose name
       are of the form widthxheight are generally fixed width, as
       is the font fixed.  See xlsfonts(1X) for more information.

              When  you specify a fontset, be sure to put a space
              between the switch and the fontset name.   Set  the
              dot  size  of  u(pper) and l(ower) linespace in the
              form u+l.  You can omit u  and/or  l.  The  default
              value  is 1+1.  Set the Emacs window's border width
              to  the  number  of  pixels  specified  by  pixels.
              Defaults  to  one pixel on each side of the window.
              Set the window's internal border width to the  number
  of pixels specified by pixels. Defaults to one
              pixel of padding on each side of the  window.   Set
              the  Emacs  window's width, height, and position as
              specified.  The geometry specification  is  in  the
              standard  X format; see X(1X) for more information.
              The width and height are specified  in  characters;
              the  default  is 80 by 24.  On color displays, sets
              the color of the text.

              See the file /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt  for  a  list  of
              valid  color  names.   On  color displays, sets the
              color of the window's background.   On  color  displays,
  sets  the color of the window's border.  On
              color displays, sets the color of the window's text
              cursor.   On  color displays, sets the color of the
              window's mouse cursor.  Create the Emacs window  on
              the  display  specified by displayname. Must be the
              first option specified in the command line.   Tells
              Emacs  not  to  use its special interface to X.  If
              you use this switch when  invoking  Emacs  from  an
              xterm(1X)  window,  display is done in that window.
              This must be the first option specified in the command
 line.

       You  can  set  X  default values for your Emacs windows in
       your file  (see  xrdb(1X)).   Use  the  following  format:
       emacs.keyword:value

       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs
       lets you set default values for  the  following  keywords:
       Sets  the  window's text font.  List of names of fontsets.
       The first fontset in the list is used by default.  Definition
  of fontset XXX.  It should be a comma separated list
       of font names.  Each name should contain at least CHARSETREGISTRY.
   If reverseVideo's value is set to on, the window
 will be displayed in reverse video.   If  bitmapIcon's
       value  is  set  to  on,  the  window will iconify into the
       "kitchen sink."  Sets the window's border width in pixels.
       Sets  the  window's  internal border width in pixels.  For
       color displays, sets the window's text color.   For  color
       displays,  sets  the window's background color.  For color
       displays, sets the color  of  the  window's  border.   For
       color  displays,  sets the color of the window's text cursor.
  For color displays, sets the color of  the  window's
       mouse  cursor.   Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as
       described above).  Sets the title  of  the  Emacs  window.
       Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

       If  you  try  to  set color values while using a black and
       white display, the window's characteristics  will  default
       as follows: the foreground color will be set to black, the
       background color will be set to white,  the  border  color
       will  be  set to grey, and the text and mouse cursors will
       be set to black.

       Using the Mouse

       The following lists the  mouse  button  bindings  for  the
       Emacs  window under X11.  FUNCTION Set point.  Paste text.
       Cut text into X cut buffer.  Cut text into X  cut  buffer.
       Paste  text.   Cut  text  into  X  cut buffer and kill it.
       Select this window, then split it into two windows.   Same
       as  typing  CTRL-x 2.  X buffer menu--hold the buttons and
       keys down, wait for menu to  appear,  select  buffer,  and
       release.  Move mouse out of menu and release to cancel.  X
       help menu--pop up index card menu for Emacs help.   Select
       window  with mouse, and delete all other windows.  Same as
       typing CTRL-x 1.

MANUALS    [Toc]    [Back]

       You can order printed copies of the GNU Emacs  Manual  for
       $20.00/copy  postpaid  from  the Free Software Foundation,
       which develops GNU software  (contact  them  for  quantity
       prices on the manual).  Their address is:

       Free Software Foundation
       675 Mass Ave.
       Cambridge, MA 02139

       Your  local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available.
  As with all software  and  publications  from  FSF,
       everyone is permitted to make and distribute copies of the
       Emacs manual.  The  TeX  source  to  the  manual  is  also
       included in the Emacs source distribution.

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

       There  is a mailing list, bug-gnu-emacs@prep.ai.mit.edu on
       the  internet   (ucbvax!prep.ai.mit.edu!bug-gnu-emacs   on
       UUCPnet),  for reporting Emacs bugs and fixes.  But before
       reporting something as a bug, please try to be  sure  that
       it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate
       feature.  We ask you to read the section "Reporting  Emacs
       Bugs"  near  the  end  of  the  reference  manual (or Info
       system) for hints on how and when to report  bugs.   Also,
       include the version number of the Emacs you are running in
       every bug report that you send in.

       Do not expect a personal answer to a bug report.  The purpose
  of  reporting bugs is to get them fixed for everyone
       in the next release, if possible. For personal assistance,
       look  in the SERVICE file (see below) for a list of people
       who offer it.

       Please do not send anything but bug reports to this  mailing
  list.  Send  requests to be added to mailing lists to
       the  special  list  info-gnu-emacs-request@prep.ai.mit.edu
       (or the corresponding UUCP address).  For more information
       about    Emacs    mailing    lists,    see    the     file
       /usr/i18n/mule/lib/mule/$VERSION/etc/MAILINGLISTS.    Bugs
       tend actually to be fixed if they can be isolated,  so  it
       is in your interest to report them in such a way that they
       can be easily reproduced.

       Bugs that I know about are: shell will not work with  programs
 running in Raw mode on some Unix versions.

       There  is  a mailing list, mule@etl.go.jp on the internet,
       for reporting Mule bugs and fixes.  But  before  reporting
       something as a bug, please try to check if the bug is Mule
       oriented or original GNU Emacs oriented. The mailing  list
       above is to discuss Mule oriented matters.

UNRESTRICTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Emacs  is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to
       anyone under the terms stated in the Emacs General  Public
       License,  a  copy  of which accompanies each copy of Emacs
       and which also appears in the reference manual.

       Copies of Emacs may sometimes be  received  packaged  with
       distributions of Unix systems, but it is never included in
       the scope of any license  covering  those  systems.   Such
       inclusion violates the terms on which distribution is permitted.
  In fact, the primary purpose of the General  Public
 License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other
       restrictions to redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard Stallman encourages  you  to  improve  and  extend
       Emacs,  and  urges  that you contribute your extensions to
       the GNU library.  Eventually GNU (Gnu's Not Unix) will  be
       a complete replacement for Berkeley Unix. Everyone will be
       able to use the GNU system for free.

       Mule is also free; anyone may redistribute copies of  Mule
       to anyone under the terms stated in the GNU General Public
       License, a copy of which accompanies each copy of Mule.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

       files for the Info documentation browser (a  subsystem  of
       Emacs)  to  refer to.  Currently not much of Unix is documented
 here, but the complete text of the Emacs  reference
       manual  is  included in a convenient tree structured form.
       Lisp source files and  compiled  files  that  define  most
       editing   commands.    Some   are  preloaded;  others  are
       autoloaded from this directory when  used.   various  programs
  that  are  used  with  GNU Emacs, and some files of
       information.  contains the documentation strings  for  the
       Lisp primitives and preloaded Lisp functions of GNU Emacs.
       They are stored here to reduce the size of  Emacs  proper.
       lists  people offering various services to assist users of
       GNU Emacs, including education,  troubleshooting,  porting
       and customization.  These files also have information useful
 to anyone wishing to write programs in the Emacs  Lisp
       extension  language,  which  has  not yet been fully documented.
  holds lock files that  are  made  for  all  files
       being modified in Emacs, to prevent simultaneous modification
 of one file by two users.   list  of  valid  X  color
       names.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

      
      
       X(1X), xlsfonts(1X), xterm(1X), xrdb(1X), m2ps(1)

AUTHORS    [Toc]    [Back]

       Emacs  was  written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software
 Foundation. Joachim Martillo and Robert Krawitz added
       the X features.

       Mule  was  written  by  Ken'ichi HANDA, Satoru TOMURA, and
       Mikiko NISHIKIMI of  Electrotechnical  Laboratory,  JAPAN,
       with a great help by members of the Mule mailing list.



                                                          mule(1)
[ Back ]
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