mule - Multilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs
mule [command-line switches] [files...]
Mule is a multilingual enhancement to GNU Emacs. Mule
provides a facility to display, input, and edit multilingual
characters in addition to all GNU Emacs facilities.
GNU Emacs is a new version of Emacs, written by the author
of the original (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman. Its user
functionality encompasses everything other Emacs editors
do, and it is easily extensible since its editing commands
are written in Lisp.
Emacs has an extensive interactive help facility, but the
facility assumes that you know how to manipulate Emacs
windows and buffers. CTRL-h (backspace or CTRL-h) enters
the Help facility. Help Tutorial (CTRL-h t) requests an
interactive tutorial which can teach beginners the fundamentals
of Emacs in a few minutes. Help Apropos (CTRL-h a)
helps you find a command given its functionality, Help
Character (CTRL-h c) describes a given character's effect,
and Help Function (CTRL-h f) describes a given Lisp function
specified by name.
Emacs's Undo can undo several steps of modification to
your buffers, so it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.
GNU Emacs's many special packages handle mail reading
(RMail) and sending (Mail), outline editing (Outline),
compiling (Compile), running subshells within Emacs windows
(Shell), running a Lisp read-eval-print loop (LispInteraction-Mode),
and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).
There is an extensive reference manual, but users of other
Emacses should have little trouble adapting even without a
copy. Users new to Emacs will be able to use basic features
fairly rapidly by studying the tutorial and using
the self-documentation features.
The following options are of general interest: Edit file.
Go to the line specified by number (do not insert a space
between the "+" sign and the number). Do not load an init
file. Load user's init file. Use specified file as the
terminal instead of using stdin/stdout. This must be the
first argument specified in the command line.
The following options are lisp-oriented (these options are
processed in the order encountered): Execute the lisp
function function. Load the lisp code in the file file.
The following options are useful when running Emacs as a
batch editor: Edit in batch mode using the commands found
in commandfile. The editor will send messages to stdout.
This option must be the first in the argument list. Exit
Emacs while in batch mode.
Using Emacs with X
Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window
system. If you run Emacs from under X windows, it will
create its own X window to display in. You will probably
want to start the editor as a background process so that
you can continue using your original window.
Emacs can be started with the following X switches: Specifies
the program name which should be used when looking up
defaults in the user's X resources. This must be the
first option specified in the command line. Specifies the
name which should be assigned to the Emacs window. Display
the Emacs window in reverse video. Use the "kitchen
sink" bitmap icon when iconifying the Emacs window. Set
the Emacs window's fontset to that specified by fontset.
You can specify a fontset just by the name or a comma separated
list of fonts. In the former case, the actual contents
of the fontset should be defined by X's resource or
Emacslisp function new-fontset. In the latter case, a
fontset of no name is created from the list. You will find
the various X fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory.
Note that Emacs will only accept fixed width fonts. Under
the X11 Release 4 font-naming conventions, any font with
the value "m" or "c" in the eleventh field of the font
name is a fixed width font. Furthermore, fonts whose name
are of the form widthxheight are generally fixed width, as
is the font fixed. See xlsfonts(1X) for more information.
When you specify a fontset, be sure to put a space
between the switch and the fontset name. Set the
dot size of u(pper) and l(ower) linespace in the
form u+l. You can omit u and/or l. The default
value is 1+1. Set the Emacs window's border width
to the number of pixels specified by pixels.
Defaults to one pixel on each side of the window.
Set the window's internal border width to the number
of pixels specified by pixels. Defaults to one
pixel of padding on each side of the window. Set
the Emacs window's width, height, and position as
specified. The geometry specification is in the
standard X format; see X(1X) for more information.
The width and height are specified in characters;
the default is 80 by 24. On color displays, sets
the color of the text.
See the file /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt for a list of
valid color names. On color displays, sets the
color of the window's background. On color displays,
sets the color of the window's border. On
color displays, sets the color of the window's text
cursor. On color displays, sets the color of the
window's mouse cursor. Create the Emacs window on
the display specified by displayname. Must be the
first option specified in the command line. Tells
Emacs not to use its special interface to X. If
you use this switch when invoking Emacs from an
xterm(1X) window, display is done in that window.
This must be the first option specified in the command
You can set X default values for your Emacs windows in
your file (see xrdb(1X)). Use the following format:
where value specifies the default value of keyword. Emacs
lets you set default values for the following keywords:
Sets the window's text font. List of names of fontsets.
The first fontset in the list is used by default. Definition
of fontset XXX. It should be a comma separated list
of font names. Each name should contain at least CHARSETREGISTRY.
If reverseVideo's value is set to on, the window
will be displayed in reverse video. If bitmapIcon's
value is set to on, the window will iconify into the
"kitchen sink." Sets the window's border width in pixels.
Sets the window's internal border width in pixels. For
color displays, sets the window's text color. For color
displays, sets the window's background color. For color
displays, sets the color of the window's border. For
color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor.
For color displays, sets the color of the window's
mouse cursor. Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as
described above). Sets the title of the Emacs window.
Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.
If you try to set color values while using a black and
white display, the window's characteristics will default
as follows: the foreground color will be set to black, the
background color will be set to white, the border color
will be set to grey, and the text and mouse cursors will
be set to black.
Using the Mouse
The following lists the mouse button bindings for the
Emacs window under X11. FUNCTION Set point. Paste text.
Cut text into X cut buffer. Cut text into X cut buffer.
Paste text. Cut text into X cut buffer and kill it.
Select this window, then split it into two windows. Same
as typing CTRL-x 2. X buffer menu--hold the buttons and
keys down, wait for menu to appear, select buffer, and
release. Move mouse out of menu and release to cancel. X
help menu--pop up index card menu for Emacs help. Select
window with mouse, and delete all other windows. Same as
typing CTRL-x 1.
You can order printed copies of the GNU Emacs Manual for
$20.00/copy postpaid from the Free Software Foundation,
which develops GNU software (contact them for quantity
prices on the manual). Their address is:
Free Software Foundation
675 Mass Ave.
Cambridge, MA 02139
Your local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available.
As with all software and publications from FSF,
everyone is permitted to make and distribute copies of the
Emacs manual. The TeX source to the manual is also
included in the Emacs source distribution.
There is a mailing list, firstname.lastname@example.org on
the internet (ucbvax!prep.ai.mit.edu!bug-gnu-emacs on
UUCPnet), for reporting Emacs bugs and fixes. But before
reporting something as a bug, please try to be sure that
it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate
feature. We ask you to read the section "Reporting Emacs
Bugs" near the end of the reference manual (or Info
system) for hints on how and when to report bugs. Also,
include the version number of the Emacs you are running in
every bug report that you send in.
Do not expect a personal answer to a bug report. The purpose
of reporting bugs is to get them fixed for everyone
in the next release, if possible. For personal assistance,
look in the SERVICE file (see below) for a list of people
who offer it.
Please do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing
list. Send requests to be added to mailing lists to
the special list email@example.com
(or the corresponding UUCP address). For more information
about Emacs mailing lists, see the file
tend actually to be fixed if they can be isolated, so it
is in your interest to report them in such a way that they
can be easily reproduced.
Bugs that I know about are: shell will not work with programs
running in Raw mode on some Unix versions.
There is a mailing list, firstname.lastname@example.org on the internet,
for reporting Mule bugs and fixes. But before reporting
something as a bug, please try to check if the bug is Mule
oriented or original GNU Emacs oriented. The mailing list
above is to discuss Mule oriented matters.
Emacs is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to
anyone under the terms stated in the Emacs General Public
License, a copy of which accompanies each copy of Emacs
and which also appears in the reference manual.
Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged with
distributions of Unix systems, but it is never included in
the scope of any license covering those systems. Such
inclusion violates the terms on which distribution is permitted.
In fact, the primary purpose of the General Public
License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other
restrictions to redistribution of Emacs.
Richard Stallman encourages you to improve and extend
Emacs, and urges that you contribute your extensions to
the GNU library. Eventually GNU (Gnu's Not Unix) will be
a complete replacement for Berkeley Unix. Everyone will be
able to use the GNU system for free.
Mule is also free; anyone may redistribute copies of Mule
to anyone under the terms stated in the GNU General Public
License, a copy of which accompanies each copy of Mule.
files for the Info documentation browser (a subsystem of
Emacs) to refer to. Currently not much of Unix is documented
here, but the complete text of the Emacs reference
manual is included in a convenient tree structured form.
Lisp source files and compiled files that define most
editing commands. Some are preloaded; others are
autoloaded from this directory when used. various programs
that are used with GNU Emacs, and some files of
information. contains the documentation strings for the
Lisp primitives and preloaded Lisp functions of GNU Emacs.
They are stored here to reduce the size of Emacs proper.
lists people offering various services to assist users of
GNU Emacs, including education, troubleshooting, porting
and customization. These files also have information useful
to anyone wishing to write programs in the Emacs Lisp
extension language, which has not yet been fully documented.
holds lock files that are made for all files
being modified in Emacs, to prevent simultaneous modification
of one file by two users. list of valid X color
X(1X), xlsfonts(1X), xterm(1X), xrdb(1X), m2ps(1)
Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software
Foundation. Joachim Martillo and Robert Krawitz added
the X features.
Mule was written by Ken'ichi HANDA, Satoru TOMURA, and
Mikiko NISHIKIMI of Electrotechnical Laboratory, JAPAN,
with a great help by members of the Mule mailing list.
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