echo - Writes its arguments to standard output
echo [-n] [string...]
[Tru64 UNIX] The -n option is valid only if the environment
variable CMD_ENV is set to bsd.
The C shell has a built-in version of the echo command.
If you are using the C shell, and want to guarantee that
you are using the command described here, you must specify
the full path /usr/bin/echo. See the csh(1) reference
page for a description of the built-in command.
Interfaces documented on this reference page conform to
industry standards as follows:
Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information
about industry standards and associated tags.
[Tru64 UNIX] No newline is added to the output. The -n
option is valid only if the environment variable CMD_ENV
is set to bsd. Otherwise any -n operand is treated as a
string rather than as a option. See the printf(1) reference
page for use in portable applications.
The string to be displayed on standard output. The echo
command recognizes the following special characters in the
string: Displays an alert character. Displays a backspace
character. Suppresses the newline character. All characters
following \c in the arguments are ignored. Displays
a formfeed character. Displays a newline character. Displays
a carriage-return character. Displays a tab character.
Displays a vertical tab character. Displays a backslash
character. Displays an 8-bit character whose value
is the 1-, 2- or 3-digit octal number, number. The first
digit of number must be a 0 (zero).
The echo command writes the specified string to standard
output, followed by a newline character.
The arguments are separated by spaces. Use the echo command
to produce diagnostic messages in command files and
to send data into a pipe. If there are no arguments, the
echo command outputs a newline character.
[Tru64 UNIX] The echo command described here is the program
/usr/bin/echo. Both csh and sh shells contain builtin
echo subcommands, which do not necessarily work in the
same way as the /usr/bin/echo command.
The following exit values are returned: Successful completion.
An error occurred.
To write a message to standard output, enter: echo Please
insert diskette . . . To display a message containing
special characters as listed in DESCRIPTION, enclose the
message in quotes, as follows: echo "\n\n\nI'm at
lunch.\nI'll be back at 1 p.m."
This skips three lines and displays the message:
I'm at lunch. I'll be back at 1 p.m.
You must enclose the message in quotation marks if
it contains escape sequences such as \n. Otherwise,
the shell treats the backslash (\) as an
escape character. The previous command example,
entered without the quotes, results in the following
output: nnnI'm at lunch.nI'll be back at 1 p.m.
To use echo with pattern-matching characters,
enter: echo The back-up files are: *.bak
This displays the message The back-up files are:
and then displays the file names in the current
directory ending with To add a single line of text
to a file, enter: echo Remember to set the shell
search path to $PATH. >>notes
This adds the message to the end of the file notes
after the shell substitutes the value of the PATH
shell variable. To write a message to the standard
error output (sh only), enter: echo Error: file
already exists. >&2
Use this in shell procedures to write error messages.
If the >&2 is omitted, then the message is
written to the standard output.
ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES [Toc] [Back]
The following environment variables affect the execution
of echo: [Tru64 UNIX] This variable must set to bsd for
the -n option to be valid. Otherwise any -n operand is
treated as a string member. Provides a default value for
the internationalization variables that are unset or null.
If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding value from the
default locale is used. If any of the internationalization
variables contain an invalid setting, the utility
behaves as if none of the variables had been defined. If
set to a non-empty string value, overrides the values of
all the other internationalization variables. Determines
the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of
text data as characters (for example, single-byte as
opposed to multibyte characters in arguments). Determines
the locale for the format and contents of diagnostic messages
written to standard error. Determines the location
of message catalogues for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.
Commands: csh(1), ksh(1), printf(1), Bourne shell sh(1b),
POSIX shell sh(1p)
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