routed - network RIP and router discovery routing daemon
routed [-sqdghmpAt] [-T tracefile] [-F net[/mask[,metric]]]
routed is a daemon invoked at boot time to manage the network routing tables.
It uses Routing Information Protocol, RIPv1 (RFC
1058), RIPv2 (RFC
1723), and Internet Router Discovery Protocol (RFC 1256) to
kernel routing table. The RIPv1 protocol is based on the
It listens on the udp(4) socket for the route(8) service
services(5)) for Routing Information Protocol packets. It
also sends and
receives multicast Router Discovery ICMP messages. If the
host is a
router, routed periodically supplies copies of its routing
tables to any
directly connected hosts and networks. It also advertises
default routes using Router Discovery ICMP messages.
When started (or when a network interface is later turned
on), routed uses
an AF_ROUTE address family facility to find those directly connected
interfaces configured into the system and marked ``up''. It
routes for the interfaces to the kernel routing table.
being first started, and provided there is at least one interface on
which RIP has not been disabled, routed deletes all pre-existing nonstatic
routes in the kernel table, except those marked with
flag (see route(4)), i.e. routes that have been inserted
Static routes in the kernel table are preserved and included
in RIP responses
if they have a valid RIP metric (see route(8)).
If more than one interface is present (not counting the
it is assumed that the host should forward packets
among the connected
networks. After transmitting a RIP request and
Advertisements or Solicitations on a new interface, the daemon enters a
loop, listening for RIP request and response and Router Discover packets
from other hosts.
When a request packet is received, routed formulates a reply
based on the
information maintained in its internal tables. The response
contains a list of known routes, each marked with a
metric (a count of 16 or greater is considered "infinite").
metrics reflect the metric associated with interface (see
so setting the metric on an interface is an effective way to
Responses do not contain routes with a first hop on the requesting network
to implement in part split-horizon. Requests from
such as rtquery(8) are answered with the complete table.
The routing table maintained by the daemon includes space
gateways for each destination to speed recovery from a failing router.
RIP response packets received are used to update the routing
they are from one of the several currently recognized
advertise a better metric than at least one of the existing
When an update is applied, routed records the change in its
and updates the kernel routing table if the best route to
changes. The change in the kernel routing table is reflected in the next
batch of response packets sent. If the next response is not
for a while, a flash update response containing only recently changed
routes is sent.
In addition to processing incoming packets, routed also periodically
checks the routing table entries. If an entry has not been
updated for 3
minutes, the entry's metric is set to infinity and marked
Deletions are delayed until the route has been advertised
with an infinite
metric to ensure the invalidation is propagated
throughout the local
internet. This is a form of poison reverse.
Routes in the kernel table that are added or changed as a
result of ICMP
Redirect messages are deleted after a while to minimize
When a TCP connection suffers a timeout, the kernel tells
deletes all redirected routes through the gateway involved,
age of all RIP routes through the gateway to allow an alternate to be
chosen, and advances the age of any relevant Router Discovery Protocol
Hosts acting as internetwork routers gratuitously supply
tables every 30 seconds to all directly connected hosts and
These RIP responses are sent to the broadcast address on
nets that support
broadcasting, to the destination address on point-topoint links,
and to the router's own address on other networks. If RIPv2
multicast packets are sent on interfaces that support multicasting.
If no response is received on a remote interface, if there
while sending responses, or if there are more errors than
input or output
(see netstat(1)), then the cable or some other part of the
assumed to be disconnected or broken, and routes are adjusted appropriately.
The Internet Router Discovery Protocol is handled similarly.
daemon is supplying RIP routes, it also listens for Router
and sends Advertisements. When it is quiet and
to other RIP routers, it sends Solicitations and listens
If it receives a good Advertisement, it stops
broadcast or multicast RIP responses. It tracks several advertising
routers to speed recovery when the currently chosen router
dies. If all
discovered routers disappear, the daemon resumes listening
to RIP responses.
While using Router Discovery (which happens by default when
has a single network interface and a Router Discover Advertisement is received),
there is a single default route and a variable number of redirected
host routes in the kernel table.
The Router Discover standard requires that advertisements
have a default
"lifetime" of 30 minutes. That means should something happen, a client
can be without a good route for 30 minutes. It is a good
idea to reduce
the default to 45 seconds using -P rdisc_interval=45 on the
or rdisc_interval=45 in the /etc/gateways file.
See the pm_rdisc facility described below to support "legacy" systems
that can handle neither RIPv2 nor Router Discovery.
By default, neither Router Discovery advertisements nor solicitations are
sent over point to point links (e.g., PPP).
The options are as follows:
-s Forces routed to supply routing information. This
is the default
if multiple network interfaces are present on which
RIP or Router
Discovery have not been disabled, and if the kernel
-q Opposite of the -s option.
-d Do not run in the background. This option is meant
-g Used on internetwork routers to offer a route to the
destination. It is equivalent to -F 0/0,1 and is
for historical reasons. A better choice is -P
pm_rdisc on the
command line or pm_rdisc in the /etc/gateways file,
since a larger
metric will be used, reducing the spread of the
dangerous default route. This is typically used on
a gateway to
the Internet, or on a gateway that uses another
whose routes are not reported to other local
that because a metric of 1 is used, this feature is
It is more commonly accidentally used to create
chaos with a
routing loop than to solve problems.
-h Causes host or point-to-point routes to not be advertised, provided
there is a network route going the same direction. That is
a limited kind of aggregation. This option is useful on gateways
to Ethernets that have other gateway machines connected with
point-to-point links such as SLIP.
-m Causes the machine to advertise a host or point-topoint route to
its primary interface. It is useful on multi-homed
as NFS servers. This option should not be used except when the
cost of the host routes it generates is justified by
of the server. It is effective only when the
machine is supplying
routing information, because there is more
than one interface.
The -m option overrides the -q option to the
of advertising the host route.
-A Do not ignore RIPv2 authentication if we do not care
authentication. This option is required for conformance with RFC
1723. However, it makes no sense and breaks using
RIP as a discovery
protocol to ignore all RIPv2 packets that
when this machine does not care about authentication.
Increases the debugging level to at least 1 and
information to be appended to the trace file. Note
of security concerns, it is wisest to not run routed
with tracing directed to a file.
-t Increases the debugging level, which causes more information to
be logged on the tracefile specified with -T or
The debugging level can be increased or decreased
SIGUSR1 or SIGUSR2 signals or with the rtquery(8)
Minimize routes in transmissions via interfaces with
that match net/mask, and synthesizes a default route
to this machine
with the metric. The intent is to reduce RIP
slow, point-to-point links such as PPP links by replacing many
large UDP packets of RIP information with a single,
containing a "fake" default route. If metric is absent, a value
of 14 is assumed to limit the spread of the "fake"
This is a dangerous feature that when used carelessly can cause
routing loops. Notice also that more than one interface can
match the specified network number and mask. See
Equivalent to adding the parameter line parms to the
Any other argument supplied is interpreted as the name of a
file in which
the actions of routed should be logged. It is better to use
of appending the name of the trace file to the command.
routed also supports the notion of "distant" passive or
When routed is started, it reads the file /etc/gateways to
find such distant
gateways which may not be located using only information from a
routing socket, to discover if some of the local gateways
and to obtain other parameters. Gateways specified in this
be marked passive if they are not expected to exchange routing information,
while gateways marked active should be willing to exchange RIP
packets. Routes through passive gateways are installed in
routing tables once upon startup and are not included in
Distant active gateways are treated like network interfaces.
are sent to the distant active gateway. If no responses are received,
the associated route is deleted from the kernel
table and RIP responses
advertised via other interfaces. If the distant
sending RIP responses, the associated route is restored.
Such gateways can be useful on media that do not support
multicasts but otherwise act like classic shared media like
such as some ATM networks. One can list all RIP routers
reachable on the
ATM network in /etc/gateways with a series of "host" lines.
Gateways marked external are also passive, but are not
placed in the kernel
routing table nor are they included in routing updates.
of external entries is to indicate that another routing process will install
such a route if necessary, and that alternate routes
to that destination
should not be installed by routed. Such entries are
when both routers may learn of routes to the same destination.
The /etc/gateways file is comprised of a series of lines,
each in one of
the following formats or consist of parameters described below:
net Nname[/mask] gateway Gname metric value <passive |
active | extern>
host Hname gateway Gname metric value <passive | active |
Nname or Hname is the name of the destination network or
host. It may be
a symbolic network name or an Internet address specified in
(see inet(3)). (If it is a name, then it must either
be defined in
/etc/networks or /etc/hosts, or named(8) must have been
mask is an optional number between 1 and 32 indicating the
Gname is the name or address of the gateway to which RIP responses should
value is the hop count to the destination host or network.
host hname is
equivalent to net nname/32.
One of the keywords passive, active or external must be present to indicate
whether the gateway should be treated as passive or
active (as described
above), or whether the gateway is external to the
scope of the
Lines that start with neither "net" nor "host" must consist
of one or
more of the following parameter settings, separated by commas or blanks:
Indicates that the other parameters on the line apply to the interface
name ifname. This typically is the first
entry in all
lines in /etc/gateways.
Advertises a route to network nname with mask mask
and the supplied
metric (default 1). This is useful for filling "holes" in
CIDR allocations. This parameter must appear by itself on a
Do not use this feature unless necessary. It is
Specifies a RIPv2 password that will be included on
all RIPv2 responses
sent and checked on all RIPv2 responses received. The
password must not contain any blanks, tab characters, commas or
no_ag Turns off aggregation of subnets in RIPv1 and RIPv2
Turns off aggregation of networks into supernets in
Equivalent to no_rip no_rdisc.
no_rip Disables all RIP processing on the specified interface (no RIP
will be transmitted, and any received RIP packets
will be ignored).
If no interfaces are allowed to process RIP
routed acts purely as a router discovery daemon.
Note that turning
off RIP without explicitly turning on router
with rdisc_adv or -s Causes routed to act
as a client
router discovery daemon, not advertising.
Causes RIPv1 received responses to be ignored.
Causes RIPv2 received responses to be ignored.
Turns off RIPv1 output and causes RIPv2 advertisements to be multicast
Disables the Internet Router Discovery Protocol.
Disables the transmission of Router Discovery Solicitations.
Specifies that Router Discovery solicitations should
even on point-to-point links, which by default only
Router Discovery messages.
Disables the transmission of Router Discovery Advertisements.
Specifies that Router Discovery advertisements
should be sent,
even on point-to-point links, which by default only
Router Discovery messages.
Specifies that Router Discovery packets should be
Sets the preference in Router Discovery Advertisements to the integer
Sets the nominal interval with which Router Discovery Advertisements
are transmitted to N seconds and their lifetime to 3*N.
Has an identical effect to -F net[/mask][,metric]
with the network
and mask coming from the specified interface.
Similar to fake_default. When RIPv2 routes are multicast, so
that RIPv1 listeners cannot receive them, this feature causes a
RIPv1 default route to be broadcast to RIPv1 listeners. Unless
modified with fake_default, the default route is
broadcast with a
metric of 14. That serves as a "poor man's router
Note that the netmask associated with point-to-point links
(such as SLIP
or PPP, with the IFF_POINTOPOINT flag) is used by routed to
netmask used by the remote system when RIPv1 is used.
/etc/gateways for distant gateways
icmp(4), udp(4), rtquery(8)
Internet Transport Protocols, XSIS 028112, Xerox System Integration
The routed command appeared in 4.2BSD.
It does not always detect unidirectional failures in network
(e.g., when the output side fails).
OpenBSD 3.6 June 1, 1996
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