*nix Documentation Project
·  Home
 +   man pages
·  Linux HOWTOs
·  FreeBSD Tips
·  *niX Forums

  man pages->OpenBSD man pages -> SPLAY_INITIALIZER (3)              
Title
Content
Arch
Section
 

TREE(3)

Contents


NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     SPLAY_PROTOTYPE, SPLAY_GENERATE, SPLAY_ENTRY, SPLAY_HEAD,
     SPLAY_INITIALIZER,  SPLAY_ROOT,   SPLAY_EMPTY,   SPLAY_NEXT,
SPLAY_MIN,
     SPLAY_MAX,      SPLAY_FIND,     SPLAY_LEFT,     SPLAY_RIGHT,
SPLAY_FOREACH,
     SPLAY_INIT,   SPLAY_INSERT,   SPLAY_REMOVE,    RB_PROTOTYPE,
RB_GENERATE,
     RB_ENTRY,   RB_HEAD,   RB_INITIALIZER,   RB_ROOT,  RB_EMPTY,
RB_NEXT, RB_MIN,
     RB_MAX, RB_FIND, RB_LEFT, RB_RIGHT,  RB_PARENT,  RB_FOREACH,
RB_INIT,
     RB_INSERT,  RB_REMOVE  -  implementations  of splay and redblack trees

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     #include <sys/tree.h>

     SPLAY_PROTOTYPE(NAME, TYPE, FIELD, CMP);

     SPLAY_GENERATE(NAME, TYPE, FIELD, CMP);

     SPLAY_ENTRY(TYPE);

     SPLAY_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE);

     struct TYPE *
     SPLAY_INITIALIZER(SPLAY_HEAD *head);

     SPLAY_ROOT(SPLAY_HEAD *head);

     bool
     SPLAY_EMPTY(SPLAY_HEAD *head);

     struct TYPE *
     SPLAY_NEXT(NAME, SPLAY_HEAD *head, struct TYPE *elm);

     struct TYPE *
     SPLAY_MIN(NAME, SPLAY_HEAD *head);

     struct TYPE *
     SPLAY_MAX(NAME, SPLAY_HEAD *head);

     struct TYPE *
     SPLAY_FIND(NAME, SPLAY_HEAD *head, struct TYPE *elm);

     struct TYPE *
     SPLAY_LEFT(struct TYPE *elm, SPLAY_ENTRY NAME);

     struct TYPE *
     SPLAY_RIGHT(struct TYPE *elm, SPLAY_ENTRY NAME);

     SPLAY_FOREACH(VARNAME, NAME, SPLAY_HEAD *head);

     void
     SPLAY_INIT(SPLAY_HEAD *head);

     struct TYPE *
     SPLAY_INSERT(NAME, SPLAY_HEAD *head, struct TYPE *elm);

     struct TYPE *
     SPLAY_REMOVE(NAME, SPLAY_HEAD *head, struct TYPE *elm);

     RB_PROTOTYPE(NAME, TYPE, FIELD, CMP);

     RB_GENERATE(NAME, TYPE, FIELD, CMP);

     RB_ENTRY(TYPE);

     RB_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE);

     RB_INITIALIZER(RB_HEAD *head);

     struct TYPE *
     RB_ROOT(RB_HEAD *head);

     bool
     RB_EMPTY(RB_HEAD *head);

     struct TYPE *
     RB_NEXT(NAME, RB_HEAD *head, struct TYPE *elm);

     struct TYPE *
     RB_MIN(NAME, RB_HEAD *head);

     struct TYPE *
     RB_MAX(NAME, RB_HEAD *head);

     struct TYPE *
     RB_FIND(NAME, RB_HEAD *head, struct TYPE *elm);

     struct TYPE *
     RB_LEFT(struct TYPE *elm, RB_ENTRY NAME);

     struct TYPE *
     RB_RIGHT(struct TYPE *elm, RB_ENTRY NAME);

     struct TYPE *
     RB_PARENT(struct TYPE *elm, RB_ENTRY NAME);

     RB_FOREACH(VARNAME, NAME, RB_HEAD *head);

     void
     RB_INIT(RB_HEAD *head);

     struct TYPE *
     RB_INSERT(NAME, RB_HEAD *head, struct TYPE *elm);

     struct TYPE *
     RB_REMOVE(NAME, RB_HEAD *head, struct TYPE *elm);

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     These macros define data structures for different  types  of
trees: splay
     trees and red-black trees.

     In the macro definitions, TYPE is the name tag of a user defined structure
 that must contain  a  field  of  type  SPLAY_ENTRY,  or
RB_ENTRY, named
     ENTRYNAME.   The argument HEADNAME is the name tag of a user
defined
     structure  that  must   be   declared   using   the   macros
SPLAY_HEAD() or
     RB_HEAD().  The argument NAME has to be a unique name prefix
for every
     tree that is defined.

     The function prototypes are declared with either  SPLAY_PROTOTYPE or
     RB_PROTOTYPE.  The function bodies are generated with either
     SPLAY_GENERATE or RB_GENERATE.  See the examples  below  for
further explanation
 of how these macros are used.

SPLAY TREES    [Toc]    [Back]

     A splay tree is a self-organizing data structure.  Every operation on the
     tree causes a splay to happen.  The splay moves the requested node to the
     root of the tree and partly rebalances it.

     This  has  the  benefit  that request locality causes faster
lookups as the
     requested nodes move to the top of the tree.  On  the  other
hand, every
     lookup causes memory writes.

     The Balance Theorem bounds the total access time for m operations and n
     inserts on an initially empty tree as O((m + n)lg  n).   The
amortized cost
     for a sequence of m accesses to a splay tree is O(lg n).

     A  splay  tree  is  headed  by  a  structure  defined by the
SPLAY_HEAD() macro.
     A SPLAY_HEAD structure is declared as follows:

           SPLAY_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE) head;

     where HEADNAME is the name of the structure to  be  defined,
and struct
     TYPE  is  the  type  of the elements to be inserted into the
tree.

     The SPLAY_ENTRY() macro declares a structure that allows elements to be
     connected in the tree.

     In  order  to  use  the  functions  that manipulate the tree
structure, their
     prototypes need to be declared  with  the  SPLAY_PROTOTYPE()
macro, where
     NAME  is  a unique identifier for this particular tree.  The
TYPE argument
     is the type of the structure that is being  managed  by  the
tree.  The
     FIELD  argument  is  the  name  of  the  element  defined by
SPLAY_ENTRY().

     The function bodies are generated with the  SPLAY_GENERATE()
macro.  It
     takes the same arguments as the SPLAY_PROTOTYPE() macro, but
should be
     used only once.

     Finally, the CMP argument is the name of a function used  to
compare trees
     noded  with each other.  The function takes two arguments of
type struct
     TYPE *.  If the first argument is smaller than  the  second,
the function
     returns  a  value smaller than zero.  If they are equal, the
function returns
 zero.  Otherwise, it should  return  a  value  greater
than zero.  The
     compare function defines the order of the tree elements.

     The  SPLAY_INIT()  macro  initializes the tree referenced by
head.

     The splay tree can also be initialized statically  by  using
the
     SPLAY_INITIALIZER() macro like this:

           SPLAY_HEAD(HEADNAME,  TYPE)  head  =  SPLAY_INITIALIZER(&head);

     The SPLAY_INSERT() macro inserts the new  element  elm  into
the tree.

     The  SPLAY_REMOVE()  macro  removes the element elm from the
tree pointed by
     head.

     The SPLAY_FIND() macro can be used to find a particular element in the
     tree.

           struct TYPE find, *res;
           find.key = 30;
           res = SPLAY_FIND(NAME, &head, &find);

     The SPLAY_ROOT(), SPLAY_MIN(), SPLAY_MAX(), and SPLAY_NEXT()
macros can
     be used to traverse the tree:

           for (np = SPLAY_MIN(NAME, &head); np  !=  NULL;  np  =
SPLAY_NEXT(NAME, &head, np))

     Or, for simplicity, one can use the SPLAY_FOREACH() macro:

           SPLAY_FOREACH(np, NAME, &head)

     The  SPLAY_EMPTY()  macro  should be used to check whether a
splay tree is
     empty.

RED-BLACK TREES    [Toc]    [Back]

     A red-black tree is a binary search tree with the node color
as an extra
     attribute.  It fulfills a set of conditions:

           1.    every  search  path from the root to a leaf consists of the same
                number of black nodes,
           2.   each red node (except for the root) has  a  black
parent,
           3.   each leaf node is black.

     Every  operation  on a red-black tree is bounded as O(lg n).
The maximum
     height of a red-black tree is 2lg (n+1).

     A red-black tree is headed by a  structure  defined  by  the
RB_HEAD() macro.
     A RB_HEAD structure is declared as follows:

           RB_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE) head;

     where  HEADNAME  is the name of the structure to be defined,
and struct
     TYPE is the type of the elements to  be  inserted  into  the
tree.

     The  RB_ENTRY()  macro declares a structure that allows elements to be connected
 in the tree.

     In order to use  the  functions  that  manipulate  the  tree
structure, their
     prototypes  need  to  be  declared  with  the RB_PROTOTYPE()
macro, where NAME
     is a unique identifier for this particular tree.   The  TYPE
argument is
     the type of the structure that is being managed by the tree.
The FIELD
     argument is the name of the element defined by RB_ENTRY().

     The function bodies are  generated  with  the  RB_GENERATE()
macro.  It takes
     the  same  arguments as the RB_PROTOTYPE() macro, but should
be used only
     once.

     Finally, the CMP argument is the name of a function used  to
compare trees
     noded  with each other.  The function takes two arguments of
type struct
     TYPE *.  If the first argument is smaller than  the  second,
the function
     returns  a  value smaller than zero.  If they are equal, the
function returns
 zero.  Otherwise, it should  return  a  value  greater
than zero.  The
     compare function defines the order of the tree elements.

     The RB_INIT() macro initializes the tree referenced by head.

     The red-black tree can also be initialized statically by using the
     RB_INITIALIZER() macro like this:

           RB_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE) head = RB_INITIALIZER(&head);

     The  RB_INSERT()  macro inserts the new element elm into the
tree.

     The RB_REMOVE() macro removes the element elm from the  tree
pointed by
     head.

     The RB_FIND() macro can be used to find a particular element
in the tree.

           struct TYPE find, *res;
           find.key = 30;
           res = RB_FIND(NAME, &head, &find);

     The RB_ROOT(), RB_MIN(), RB_MAX(), and RB_NEXT() macros  can
be used to
     traverse the tree:

           for  (np  =  RB_MIN(NAME,  &head);  np  !=  NULL; np =
RB_NEXT(NAME, &head, np))

     Or, for simplicity, one can use the RB_FOREACH() macro:

           RB_FOREACH(np, NAME, &head)

     The RB_EMPTY() macro should be used to check whether a  redblack tree is
     empty.

NOTES    [Toc]    [Back]

     Trying  to  free a tree in the following way is a common error:

           SPLAY_FOREACH(var, NAME, &head) {
                   SPLAY_REMOVE(NAME, &head, var);
                   free(var);
           }
           free(head);

     Since var is free'd, the FOREACH() macro refers to a pointer
that may
     have  been  reallocated already.  Proper code needs a second
variable.

           for (var = SPLAY_MIN(NAME, &head); var != NULL; var  =
nxt) {
                   nxt = SPLAY_NEXT(NAME, &head, var);
                   SPLAY_REMOVE(NAME, &head, var);
                   free(var);
           }

     Both  RB_INSERT() and SPLAY_INSERT() return NULL if the element was inserted
 in the tree successfully,  otherwise  they  return  a
pointer to the
     element with the colliding key.

     Accordingly,   RB_REMOVE()  and  SPLAY_REMOVE()  return  the
pointer to the removed
 element, otherwise they return NULL to indicate an error.

AUTHORS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The author of the tree macros is Niels Provos.

OpenBSD      3.6                        February     24,     2002
[ Back ]
 Similar pages
Name OS Title
SPLAY_FIND FreeBSD implementations of splay and red-black trees
SPLAY_MIN FreeBSD implementations of splay and red-black trees
RB_NEXT FreeBSD implementations of splay and red-black trees
SPLAY_EMPTY FreeBSD implementations of splay and red-black trees
SPLAY_MAX FreeBSD implementations of splay and red-black trees
SPLAY_ROOT FreeBSD implementations of splay and red-black trees
SPLAY_INITIALIZER FreeBSD implementations of splay and red-black trees
SPLAY_HEAD FreeBSD implementations of splay and red-black trees
SPLAY_ENTRY FreeBSD implementations of splay and red-black trees
SPLAY_GENERATE FreeBSD implementations of splay and red-black trees
Copyright © 2004-2005 DeniX Solutions SRL
newsletter delivery service