ssh-agent - authentication agent
ssh-agent [-a bind_address] [-c | -s] [-t life] [-d]
[command [args ...]]
ssh-agent [-c | -s] -k
ssh-agent is a program to hold private keys used for public
(RSA, DSA). The idea is that ssh-agent is started in
of an X-session or a login session, and all other windows or programs
are started as clients to the ssh-agent program.
Through use of
environment variables the agent can be located and automatically used for
authentication when logging in to other machines using
The options are as follows:
Bind the agent to the unix-domain socket
bind_address. The default
-c Generate C-shell commands on stdout. This is the
SHELL looks like it's a csh style of shell.
-s Generate Bourne shell commands on stdout. This is
the default if
SHELL does not look like it's a csh style of shell.
-k Kill the current agent (given by the SSH_AGENT_PID
Set a default value for the maximum lifetime of
to the agent. The lifetime may be specified in seconds or in a
time format specified in sshd(8). A lifetime specified for an
identity with ssh-add(1) overrides this value.
Without this option
the default maximum lifetime is forever.
-d Debug mode. When this option is specified ssh-agent
If a commandline is given, this is executed as a subprocess
of the agent.
When the command dies, so does the agent.
The agent initially does not have any private keys. Keys
are added using
ssh-add(1). When executed without arguments, ssh-add(1)
adds the files
$HOME/.ssh/id_rsa, $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa and
$HOME/.ssh/identity. If the
identity has a passphrase, ssh-add(1) asks for the
passphrase (using a
small X11 application if running under X11, or from the terminal if running
without X). It then sends the identity to the agent.
can be stored in the agent; the agent can automatically use any of
these identities. ssh-add -l displays the identities currently held by
The idea is that the agent is run in the user's local PC,
laptop, or terminal.
Authentication data need not be stored on any other
authentication passphrases never go over the network. However, the connection
to the agent is forwarded over SSH remote logins,
and the user
can thus use the privileges given by the identities anywhere
in the network
in a secure way.
There are two main ways to get an agent set up: The first is
agent starts a new subcommand into which some environment
exported, eg ssh-agent xterm &. The second is that the
agent prints the
needed shell commands (either sh(1) or csh(1) syntax can be
which can be evalled in the calling shell, eg eval
`ssh-agent -s` for
Bourne-type shells such as sh(1) or ksh(1) and eval
`ssh-agent -c` for
csh(1) and derivatives.
Later ssh(1) looks at these variables and uses them to establish a connection
to the agent.
The agent will never send a private key over its request
operations that require a private key will be performed by the
agent, and the result will be returned to the requester.
This way, private
keys are not exposed to clients using the agent.
A unix-domain socket is created and the name of this socket
is stored in
the SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable. The socket is made
only to the current user. This method is easily abused by
root or another
instance of the same user.
The SSH_AGENT_PID environment variable holds the agent's
The agent exits automatically when the command given on the
Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication
Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication
Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication
Unix-domain sockets used to contain the connection
to the authentication
agent. These sockets should only be readable by the
owner. The sockets should get automatically removed
ssh(1), ssh-add(1), ssh-keygen(1), sshd(8)
OpenSSH is a derivative of the original and free ssh 1.2.12
Tatu Ylonen. Aaron Campbell, Bob Beck, Markus Friedl, Niels
de Raadt and Dug Song removed many bugs, re-added newer features and created
OpenSSH. Markus Friedl contributed the support for SSH
versions 1.5 and 2.0.
OpenBSD 3.6 September 25, 1999
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