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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     last - indicate last logins of users and ttys

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     last [-csT] [-number] [-f file] [-h host]  [-n  number]  [-t
tty] [-d
          [[[CC]YY]MMDD]hhmm[.SS]] [user ...]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The last utility will either (1) list the sessions of specified users,
     ttys, and hosts, in reverse time  order,  or  (2)  list  the
users logged in
     at  a  specified snapshot date & time in reverse time order.
Each line of
     output contains the user name, the tty from which  the  session was conducted,
  any hostname, the start and stop times for the session, and the
     duration of the session.  If the session is still continuing
or was cut
     short by a crash or shutdown, last will so indicate.

     The options are as follows:

     -number    Same as the -n option (deprecated).

     -c         Calculates the total time displayed and prints it
after the

     -f file    last reads the file file instead of the default,

     -n number  Limits the report to number lines.

     -s         Display time values in seconds since  the  epoch,
instead of
                formatted dates.

     -t tty     Specify the tty.  tty names may be given fully or
                for example, last -t 03 is equivalent to last  -t

     -h host    host names may be names or internet numbers.

     -T          Display  better time information, including seconds.

     -d date    Specify the snapshot  date  &  time.   All  users
logged in at the
                snapshot  date & time will be reported.  This may
be used with
                the -f option to derive the results  from  stored
wtmp files.
                When this argument is provided, all other options
except for
                -f and -n are ignored.  The argument should be in
the form
                ``[[[CC]YY]MMDD]hhmm[.SS]''  where  each  pair of
letters represents
 the following:

                      CC      The first two digits  of  the  year
(the century).
                      YY       The second two digits of the year.
If ``YY'' is
                              specified, but  ``CC''  is  not,  a
value for ``YY''
                              between  69  and  99  results  in a
``CC'' value of
                              19.  Otherwise, a ``CC''  value  of
20 is used.
                      MM      Month of the year, from 1 to 12.
                      DD      Day of the month, from 1 to 31.
                      hh      Hour of the day, from 0 to 23.
                      mm      Minute of the hour, from 0 to 59.
                      SS      Second of the minute, from 0 to 61.

                If the ``CC'' and ``YY''  letter  pairs  are  not
specified, the
                values  default  to  the  current  year.   If the
``SS'' letter pair
                is not specified, the value defaults to 0.

     If multiple arguments are given, and a snapshot time is  not
     the  information  which  applies  to any of the arguments is
printed, e.g.,
     last root -t console would list all of  root's  sessions  as
well as all
     sessions  on  the console terminal.  If no users, hostnames,
or terminals
     are specified, last prints a record of all  logins  and  logouts.

     The pseudo-user ``reboot'' logs in at reboots of the system;
thus last
     reboot will give an indication of mean time between  reboot.

     If last is interrupted, it indicates to what date the search
has progressed.
  If interrupted with a quit signal  last  indicates
how far the
     search has progressed and then continues.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     /var/log/wtmp  login database

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     lastcomm(1), utmp(5), ac(8)

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     The last command appeared in 3.0BSD.

OpenBSD      3.6                           June      6,      1993
[ Back ]
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