last - indicate last logins of users and ttys
last [-csT] [-number] [-f file] [-h host] [-n number] [-t
[[[CC]YY]MMDD]hhmm[.SS]] [user ...]
The last utility will either (1) list the sessions of specified users,
ttys, and hosts, in reverse time order, or (2) list the
users logged in
at a specified snapshot date & time in reverse time order.
Each line of
output contains the user name, the tty from which the session was conducted,
any hostname, the start and stop times for the session, and the
duration of the session. If the session is still continuing
or was cut
short by a crash or shutdown, last will so indicate.
The options are as follows:
-number Same as the -n option (deprecated).
-c Calculates the total time displayed and prints it
-f file last reads the file file instead of the default,
-n number Limits the report to number lines.
-s Display time values in seconds since the epoch,
-t tty Specify the tty. tty names may be given fully or
for example, last -t 03 is equivalent to last -t
-h host host names may be names or internet numbers.
-T Display better time information, including seconds.
-d date Specify the snapshot date & time. All users
logged in at the
snapshot date & time will be reported. This may
be used with
the -f option to derive the results from stored
When this argument is provided, all other options
-f and -n are ignored. The argument should be in
``[[[CC]YY]MMDD]hhmm[.SS]'' where each pair of
CC The first two digits of the year
YY The second two digits of the year.
If ``YY'' is
specified, but ``CC'' is not, a
value for ``YY''
between 69 and 99 results in a
``CC'' value of
19. Otherwise, a ``CC'' value of
20 is used.
MM Month of the year, from 1 to 12.
DD Day of the month, from 1 to 31.
hh Hour of the day, from 0 to 23.
mm Minute of the hour, from 0 to 59.
SS Second of the minute, from 0 to 61.
If the ``CC'' and ``YY'' letter pairs are not
values default to the current year. If the
``SS'' letter pair
is not specified, the value defaults to 0.
If multiple arguments are given, and a snapshot time is not
the information which applies to any of the arguments is
last root -t console would list all of root's sessions as
well as all
sessions on the console terminal. If no users, hostnames,
are specified, last prints a record of all logins and logouts.
The pseudo-user ``reboot'' logs in at reboots of the system;
reboot will give an indication of mean time between reboot.
If last is interrupted, it indicates to what date the search
If interrupted with a quit signal last indicates
how far the
search has progressed and then continues.
/var/log/wtmp login database
lastcomm(1), utmp(5), ac(8)
The last command appeared in 3.0BSD.
OpenBSD 3.6 June 6, 1993
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