dprofpp - display perl profile data
dprofpp [-a|-z|-l|-v|-U] [-d] [-s|-r|-u] [-q] [-F] [-I|-E]
[-O cnt] [-A] [-R] [-S] [-g subroutine] [-G <regexp> [-P]]
[-f <regexp>] [profile]
dprofpp -T [-F] [-g subroutine] [profile]
dprofpp -t [-F] [-g subroutine] [profile]
dprofpp -G <regexp> [-P] [profile]
dprofpp -p script [-Q] [other opts]
dprofpp -V [profile]
The dprofpp command interprets profile data produced by a
profiler, such as the Devel::DProf profiler. Dprofpp will
read the file tmon.out and will display the 15 subroutines
which are using the most time. By default the times for
each subroutine are given exclusive of the times of their
To profile a Perl script run the perl interpreter with the
-d switch. So to profile script test.pl with Devel::DProf
the following command should be used.
$ perl5 -d:DProf test.pl
Then run dprofpp to analyze the profile. The output of
dprofpp depends on the flags to the program and the version
of Perl you're using.
$ dprofpp -u
Total Elapsed Time = 1.67 Seconds
User Time = 0.61 Seconds
%Time Seconds #Calls sec/call Name
52.4 0.320 2 0.1600 main::foo
45.9 0.280 200 0.0014 main::bar
0.00 0.000 1 0.0000 DynaLoader::import
0.00 0.000 1 0.0000 main::baz
The dprofpp tool can also run the profiler before analyzing
the profile data. The above two commands can be executed
with one dprofpp command.
$ dprofpp -u -p test.pl
Consult "PROFILE FORMAT" in Devel::DProf for a description
of the raw profile.
Percentage of time spent in this routine.
Number of calls to this routine.
Average number of seconds per call to this routine.
Name of routine.
Time (in seconds) spent in this routine and routines
called from it.
Time (in seconds) spent in this routine (not including
those called from it).
Average time (in seconds) spent in each call of this
routine (including those called from it).
-a Sort alphabetically by subroutine names.
-d Reverse whatever sort is used
-A Count timing for autoloaded subroutine as timing for
*::AUTOLOAD. Otherwise the time to autoload it is
counted as time of the subroutine itself (there is no
way to separate autoload time from run time).
This is going to be irrelevant with newer Perls.
They will inform "Devel::DProf" when the "AUTOLOAD"
switches to actual subroutine, so a separate statistics
for "AUTOLOAD" will be collected no matter
whether this option is set.
-R Count anonymous subroutines defined in the same package
-E (default) Display all subroutine times exclusive of
child subroutine times.
-F Force the generation of fake exit timestamps if
dprofpp reports that the profile is garbled. This is
only useful if dprofpp determines that the profile is
garbled due to missing exit timestamps. You're on
your own if you do this. Consult the BUGS section.
-I Display all subroutine times inclusive of child subroutine
-l Sort by number of calls to the subroutines. This may
help identify candidates for inlining.
Show only cnt subroutines. The default is 15.
Tells dprofpp that it should profile the given script
and then interpret its profile data. See -Q.
-Q Used with -p to tell dprofpp to quit after profiling
the script, without interpreting the data.
-q Do not display column headers.
-r Display elapsed real times rather than user+system
-s Display system times rather than user+system times.
-T Display subroutine call tree to stdout. Subroutine
statistics are not displayed.
-t Display subroutine call tree to stdout. Subroutine
statistics are not displayed. When a function is
called multiple consecutive times at the same calling
level then it is displayed once with a repeat count.
-S Display merged subroutine call tree to stdout.
Statistics are displayed for each branch of the tree.
When a function is called multiple (not necessarily
consecutive) times in the same branch then all these
calls go into one branch of the next level. A repeat
count is output together with combined inclusive,
exclusive and kids time.
Branches are sorted w.r.t. inclusive time.
-U Do not sort. Display in the order found in the raw
-u Display user times rather than user+system times.
-V Print dprofpp's version number and exit. If a raw
profile is found then its XS_VERSION variable will be
-v Sort by average time spent in subroutines during each
call. This may help identify candidates for inlining.
-z (default) Sort by amount of user+system time used.
The first few lines should show you which subroutines
are using the most time.
Ignore subroutines except "subroutine" and whatever
is called from it.
Aggregate "Group" all calls matching the pattern
together. For example this can be used to group all
calls of a set of packages
or to group subroutines by name:
-P Used with -G to aggregate "Pull" together all calls
that did not match -G.
Filter all calls matching the pattern.
The environment variable DPROFPP_OPTS can be set to a
string containing options for dprofpp. You might use this
if you prefer -I over -E or if you want -F on all the
This was added fairly lazily, so there are some undesirable
side effects. Options on the commandline should
override options in DPROFPP_OPTS--but don't count on that
in this version.
Applications which call _exit() or exec() from within a
subroutine will leave an incomplete profile. See the -F
Any bugs in Devel::DProf, or any profiler generating the
profile data, could be visible here. See "BUGS" in
Mail bug reports and feature requests to the perl5-porters
mailing list at <firstname.lastname@example.org>. Bug reports
should include the output of the -V option.
dprofpp - profile processor
tmon.out - raw profile
perl, Devel::DProf, times(2)
perl v5.8.5 2002-11-06 5 [ Back ]