tail - output the last part of files
tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...
Print the last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output. With more
than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name. With
no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.
keep trying to open a file even if it is inaccessible when tail
starts or if it becomes inaccessible later -- useful only with
output the last N bytes
output appended data as the file grows; -f, --follow, and --fol-
low=descriptor are equivalent
output the last N lines, instead of the last 10
see the texinfo documentation (the default is 5)
see the texinfo documentation (the default is 200)
with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies
-q, --quiet, --silent
never output headers giving file names
with -f, sleep S seconds between iterations
always output headers giving file names
--help display this help and exit
output version information and exit
If the first character of N (the number of bytes or lines) is a `+',
print beginning with the Nth item from the start of each file, otherwise,
print the last N items in the file. N may have a multiplier suffix:
b for 512, k for 1024, m for 1048576 (1 Meg). A first OPTION of
-VALUE or +VALUE is treated like -n VALUE or -n +VALUE unless VALUE has
one of the [bkm] suffix multipliers, in which case it is treated like
-c VALUE or -c +VALUE.
With --follow (-f), tail defaults to following the file descriptor,
which means that even if a tail'ed file is renamed, tail will continue
to track its end. This default behavior is not desirable when you
really want to track the actual name of the file, not the file descriptor
(e.g., log rotation). Use --follow=name in that case. That causes
tail to track the named file by reopening it periodically to see if it
has been removed and recreated by some other program.
Written by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim Meyering.
Report bugs to <email@example.com>.
Copyright (C) 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is
NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
The full documentation for tail is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If
the info and tail programs are properly installed at your site, the
should give you access to the complete manual.
GNU textutils 2.0 November 2001 TAIL(1)
[ Back ]