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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     csh -- a shell (command interpreter) with C-like syntax

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     csh [-bcefimnstvVxX] [argument ...]
     csh [-l]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     csh is a command language interpreter incorporating a history mechanism
     (see History substitutions), job control facilities (see Jobs), interactive
 file name and user name completion (see File name completion), and a
     C-like syntax.  It is used both as an interactive login shell and a shell
     script command processor.

   Argument list processing    [Toc]    [Back]
     If the first argument (argument 0) to the shell is a dash (`-'), then
     this is a login shell.  A login shell also can be specified by invoking
     the shell with the -l flag as the only argument.

     The rest of the flag arguments are interpreted as follows:

     -b     This flag forces a ``break'' from option processing, causing any
	    further shell arguments to be treated as non-option arguments.
	    The remaining arguments will not be interpreted as shell options.
	    This may be used to pass options to a shell script without confusion
 or possible subterfuge.  The shell will not run a set-user-ID
	    script without this option.

     -c     Commands are read from the (single) following argument which must
	    be present.  Any remaining arguments are placed in argv.

     -e     The shell exits if any invoked command terminates abnormally or
	    yields a non-zero exit status.

     -f     The shell will start faster, because it will neither search for
	    nor execute commands from the file .cshrc in the invoker's home

     -i     The shell is interactive and prompts for its top-level input, even
	    if it appears not to be a terminal.  Shells are interactive without
 this option if their inputs and outputs are terminals.

     -l     The shell is a login shell (only applicable if -l is the only flag

     -m     Read .cshrc, regardless of its owner and group.  This option is
	    dangerous and should only be used by su(1).

     -n     Commands are parsed, but not executed.  This aids in syntactic
	    checking of shell scripts.	When used interactively, the shell can
	    be terminated by pressing control-D (end-of-file character), since
	    exit will not work.

     -s     Command input is taken from the standard input.

     -t     A single line of input is read and executed.  A backslash (`\')
	    may be used to escape the newline at the end of this line and continue
 onto another line.

     -v     Causes the verbose variable to be set, with the effect that command
 input is echoed after history substitution.

     -x     Causes the echo variable to be set, so that commands are echoed
	    immediately before execution.

     -V     Causes the verbose variable to be set even before .cshrc is executed.

     -X     Is to -x as -V is to -v.

     After processing of flag arguments, if arguments remain but none of the
     -c, -i, -s, or -t options were given, the first argument is taken as the
     name of a file of commands to be executed.  The shell opens this file,
     and saves its name for possible resubstitution by `$0'.  Since many systems
 use either the standard version 6 or version 7 shells whose shell
     scripts are not compatible with this shell, the shell will execute such a
     ``standard'' shell if the first character of a script is not a hash mark
     (`#'); i.e., if the script does not start with a comment.	Remaining
     arguments initialize the variable argv.

     An instance of csh begins by executing commands from the file
     /etc/csh.cshrc and, if this is a login shell, /etc/csh.login.  It then
     executes commands from .cshrc in the home directory of the invoker, and,
     if this is a login shell, the file .login in the same location.  It is
     typical for users on CRTs to put the command stty crt in their .login
     file, and to also invoke tset(1) there.

     In the normal case, the shell will begin reading commands from the terminal,
 prompting with `% .' Processing of arguments and the use of the
     shell to process files containing command scripts will be described

     The shell repeatedly performs the following actions: a line of command
     input is read and broken into ``words''.  This sequence of words is
     placed on the command history list and parsed.  Finally each command in
     the current line is executed.

     When a login shell terminates it executes commands from the files .logout
     in the user's home directory and /etc/csh.logout.

   Lexical structure    [Toc]    [Back]
     The shell splits input lines into words at blanks and tabs with the following
 exceptions.  The characters `&', `|', `;', `<', `>', (`', and `)'
     form separate words.  If doubled in `&&', `||', `<<', or `>>', these
     pairs form single words.  These parser metacharacters may be made part of
     other words, or prevented their special meaning, by preceding them with a
     backslash (`\').  A newline preceded by a `\' is equivalent to a blank.

     Strings enclosed in matched pairs of quotations, `'', ``', or `"', form
     parts of a word; metacharacters in these strings, including blanks and
     tabs, do not form separate words.	These quotations have semantics to be
     described later.  Within pairs of `'' or `"' characters, a newline preceded
 by a `\' gives a true newline character.

     When the shell's input is not a terminal, the character `#' introduces a
     comment that continues to the end of the input line.  It is prevented
     this special meaning when preceded by `\' and in quotations using ``',
     `'', and `"'.

   Commands    [Toc]    [Back]
     A simple command is a sequence of words, the first of which specifies the
     command to be executed.  A simple command or a sequence of simple commands
 separated by `|' characters forms a pipeline.  The output of each
     command in a pipeline is connected to the input of the next.  Sequences
     of pipelines may be separated by `;', and are then executed sequentially.
     A sequence of pipelines may be executed without immediately waiting for
     it to terminate by following it with a `&'.

     Any of the above may be placed in (`' `)' to form a simple command (that
     may be a component of a pipeline, for example).  It is also possible to
     separate pipelines with `||' or `&&' showing, as in the C language, that
     the second is to be executed only if the first fails or succeeds, respectively.
  (See Expressions.)

   Jobs    [Toc]    [Back]
     The shell associates a job with each pipeline.  It keeps a table of current
 jobs, printed by the jobs command, and assigns them small integer
     numbers.  When a job is started asynchronously with `&', the shell prints
     a line that looks like:

	   [1] 1234

     showing that the job which was started asynchronously was job number 1
     and had one (top-level) process, whose process ID was 1234.

     If you are running a job and wish to do something else you may hit ^Z
     (control-Z) which sends a SIGSTOP signal to the current job.  The shell
     will then normally show that the job has been ``Stopped'', and print
     another prompt.  You can then manipulate the state of this job, putting
     it in the background with the bg command, or run some other commands and
     eventually bring the job back into the foreground with the fg command.  A
     ^Z takes effect immediately and is like an interrupt in that pending output
 and unread input are discarded when it is typed.  There is another
     special key ^Y that does not generate a SIGSTOP signal until a program
     attempts to read(2) it.  This request can usefully be typed ahead when
     you have prepared some commands for a job that you wish to stop after it
     has read them.

     A job being run in the background will stop if it tries to read from the
     terminal.	Background jobs are normally allowed to produce output, but
     this can be disabled by giving the command stty tostop.  If you set this
     tty option, then background jobs will stop when they try to produce output
 like they do when they try to read input.

     There are several ways to refer to jobs in the shell.  The character `%'
     introduces a job name.  If you wish to refer to job number 1, you can
     name it as `%1'.  Just naming a job brings it to the foreground; thus %1
     is a synonym for fg %1, bringing job number 1 back into the foreground.
     Similarly, saying %1 & resumes job number 1 in the background.  Jobs can
     also be named by prefixes of the string typed in to start them, if these
     prefixes are unambiguous; thus %ex would normally restart a suspended
     ex(1) job, if there were only one suspended job whose name began with the
     string "ex".  It is also possible to say %?string which specifies a job
     whose text contains string, if there is only one such job.

     The shell maintains a notion of the current and previous jobs.  In output
     about jobs, the current job is marked with a `+' and the previous job
     with a `-'.  The abbreviation `%+' refers to the current job and `%-'
     refers to the previous job.  For close analogy with the syntax of the
     history mechanism (described below), `%%' is also a synonym for the current

     The job control mechanism requires that the stty(1) option new be set.
     It is an artifact from a new implementation of the tty driver that allows
     generation of interrupt characters from the keyboard to tell jobs to
     stop.  See stty(1) for details on setting options in the new tty driver.

   Status reporting    [Toc]    [Back]
     This shell learns immediately whenever a process changes state.  It normally
 informs you whenever a job becomes blocked so that no further
     progress is possible, but only just before it prints a prompt.  This is
     done so that it does not otherwise disturb your work.  If, however, you
     set the shell variable notify, the shell will notify you immediately of
     changes of status in background jobs.  There is also a shell command
     notify that marks a single process so that its status changes will be
     immediately reported.  By default notify marks the current process; simply
 say notify after starting a background job to mark it.

     When you try to leave the shell while jobs are stopped, you will be
     warned that ``You have stopped jobs''.  You may use the jobs command to
     see what they are.  If you do this or immediately try to exit again, the
     shell will not warn you a second time, and the suspended jobs will be

   File name completion    [Toc]    [Back]
     When the file name completion feature is enabled by setting the shell
     variable filec (see set), csh will interactively complete file names and
     user names from unique prefixes when they are input from the terminal
     followed by the escape character (the escape key, or control-[).  For
     example, if the current directory looks like

	   DSC.OLD  bin      cmd      lib      xmpl.c
	   DSC.NEW  chaosnet cmtest   mail     xmpl.o
	   bench    class    dev      mbox     xmpl.out

     and the input is

	   % vi ch<escape>

     csh will complete the prefix ``ch'' to the only matching file name
     ``chaosnet'', changing the input line to

	   % vi chaosnet

     However, given

	   % vi D<escape>

     csh will only expand the input to

	   % vi DSC.

     and will sound the terminal bell to indicate that the expansion is incomplete,
 since there are two file names matching the prefix `D'.

     If a partial file name is followed by the end-of-file character (usually
     control-D), then, instead of completing the name, csh will list all file
     names matching the prefix.  For example, the input

	   % vi D<control-D>

     causes all files beginning with `D' to be listed:


     while the input line remains unchanged.

     The same system of escape and end-of-file can also be used to expand partial
 user names, if the word to be completed (or listed) begins with the
     tilde character (`~').  For example, typing

	   cd ~ro<escape>

     may produce the expansion

	   cd ~root

     The use of the terminal bell to signal errors or multiple matches can be
     inhibited by setting the variable nobeep.

     Normally, all files in the particular directory are candidates for name
     completion.  Files with certain suffixes can be excluded from consideration
 by setting the variable fignore to the list of suffixes to be
     ignored.  Thus, if fignore is set by the command

	   % set fignore = (.o .out)

     then typing

	   % vi x<escape>

     would result in the completion to

	   % vi xmpl.c

     ignoring the files "xmpl.o" and "xmpl.out".  However, if the only completion
 possible requires not ignoring these suffixes, then they are not
     ignored.  In addition, fignore does not affect the listing of file names
     by control-D.  All files are listed regardless of their suffixes.

   Substitutions    [Toc]    [Back]
     We now describe the various transformations the shell performs on the
     input in the order in which they occur.

   History substitutions    [Toc]    [Back]
     History substitutions place words from previous command input as portions
     of new commands, making it easy to repeat commands, repeat arguments of a
     previous command in the current command, or fix spelling mistakes in the
     previous command with little typing and a high degree of confidence.
     History substitutions begin with the character `'!  and may begin
     anywhere in the input stream (with the proviso that they do not nest).
     This `'!  may be preceded by a `\' to prevent its special meaning; for
     convenience, a `'!  character is passed unchanged when it is followed by
     a blank, tab, newline, `=' or (`'.  (History substitutions also occur
     when an input line begins with `^'.  This special abbreviation will be
     described later.)	Any input line that contains history substitution is
     echoed on the terminal before it is executed as it could have been typed
     without history substitution.

     Commands input from the terminal that consist of one or more words are
     saved on the history list.  The history substitutions reintroduce
     sequences of words from these saved commands into the input stream.  The
     size of the history list is controlled by the history variable; the previous
 command is always retained, regardless of the value of the history
     variable.	Commands are numbered sequentially from 1.

     For definiteness, consider the following output from the history command:

	    9  write michael
	   10  ex write.c
	   11  cat oldwrite.c
	   12  diff *write.c

     The commands are shown with their event numbers.  It is not usually necessary
 to use event numbers, but the current event number can be made
     part of the prompt by placing a `'!  in the prompt string.

     With the current event 13 we can refer to previous events by event number
     `!11', relatively as in `!-2' (referring to the same event), by a prefix
     of a command word as in `!d' for event 12 or `!wri' for event 9, or by a
     string contained in a word in the command as in `!?mic?' also referring
     to event 9.  These forms, without further change, simply reintroduce the
     words of the specified events, each separated by a single blank.  As a
     special case, `!!' refers to the previous command; thus `!!' alone is a

     To select words from an event we can follow the event specification by a
     `:' and a designator for the desired words.  The words of an input line
     are numbered from 0, the first (usually command) word being 0, the second
     word (first argument) being 1, etc.  The basic word designators are:

	   0	   first (command) word
	   n	   n'th argument
	   ^	   first argument; i.e., `1'
	   $	   last argument
	   %	   word matched by (immediately preceding) ?s? search
	   x-y	   range of words
	   -y	   abbreviates `0-y'
	   *	   abbreviates `^-$', or nothing if only 1 word in event
	   x*	   abbreviates `x-$'
	   x-	   like `x*' but omitting word `$'

     The `:' separating the event specification from the word designator can
     be omitted if the argument selector begins with a `^', `$', `*', `-', or
     `%'.  After the optional word designator can be placed a sequence of modifiers,
 each preceded by a `:'.  The following modifiers are defined:

	   h	   Remove a trailing pathname component, leaving the head.
	   r	   Remove a trailing `.xxx' component, leaving the root name.
	   e	   Remove all but the extension `.xxx' part.
	   s/l/r/  Substitute l for r.
	   t	   Remove all leading pathname components, leaving the tail.
	   &	   Repeat the previous substitution.
	   g	   Apply the change once on each word, prefixing the above;
		   e.g., `g&'.
	   a	   Apply the change as many times as possible on a single
		   word, prefixing the above.  It can be used together with
		   `g' to apply a substitution globally.
	   p	   Print the new command line but do not execute it.
	   q	   Quote the substituted words, preventing further substitutions.

	   x	   Like `q', but break into words at blanks, tabs, and newlines.

     Unless preceded by a `g' the change is applied only to the first modifiable
 word.  With substitutions, it is an error for no word to be applicable.

     The left-hand side of substitutions are not regular expressions in the
     sense of the editors, but instead strings.  Any character may be used as
     the delimiter in place of `/'; a `\' quotes the delimiter into the l
     and r   strings.  The character `&' in the right-hand side is replaced by
     the text from the left.  A `\' also quotes `&'.  A NULL l (`//') uses the
     previous string either from an l or from a contextual scan string s in
     `!?s\?'.  The trailing delimiter in the substitution may be omitted if a
     newline follows immediately as may the trailing `'?  in a contextual

     A history reference may be given without an event specification; e.g.,
     `!$'.  Here, the reference is to the previous command unless a previous
     history reference occurred on the same line in which case this form
     repeats the previous reference.  Thus ``!?foo?^ !$'' gives the first and
     last arguments from the command matching ``?foo?''.

     A special abbreviation of a history reference occurs when the first nonblank
 character of an input line is a `^'.  This is equivalent to
     ``!:s^'' providing a convenient shorthand for substitutions on the text
     of the previous line.  Thus ^lb^lib fixes the spelling of ``lib'' in the
     previous command.	Finally, a history substitution may be surrounded with
     `{' and `}' if necessary to insulate it from the characters that follow.
     Thus, after ls -ld ~paul we might do !{l}a to do ls -ld ~paula, while !la
     would look for a command starting with ``la''.

   Quotations with ' and "
     The quotation of strings by `'' and `"' can be used to prevent all or
     some of the remaining substitutions.  Strings enclosed in `'' are prevented
 any further interpretation.  Strings enclosed in `"' may be
     expanded as described below.

     In both cases the resulting text becomes (all or part of) a single word;
     only in one special case (see Command Substitution below) does a `"'
     quoted string yield parts of more than one word; `'' quoted strings never

   Alias substitution    [Toc]    [Back]
     The shell maintains a list of aliases that can be established, displayed
     and modified by the alias and unalias commands.  After a command line is
     scanned, it is parsed into distinct commands and the first word of each
     command, left-to-right, is checked to see if it has an alias.  If it
     does, then the text that is the alias for that command is reread with the
     history mechanism available as though that command were the previous
     input line.  The resulting words replace the command and argument list.
     If no reference is made to the history list, then the argument list is
     left unchanged.

     Thus if the alias for ``ls'' is ``ls -l'', the command ls /usr would map
     to ls -l /usr, the argument list here being undisturbed.  Similarly, if
     the alias for ``lookup'' was ``grep !^ /etc/passwd'' then lookup bill
     would map to grep bill /etc/passwd.

     If an alias is found, the word transformation of the input text is performed
 and the aliasing process begins again on the reformed input line.
     Looping is prevented if the first word of the new text is the same as the
     old by flagging it to prevent further aliasing.  Other loops are detected
     and cause an error.

     Note that the mechanism allows aliases to introduce parser metasyntax.
     Thus, we can alias print 'pr \!* | lpr' to make a command that pr's its
     arguments to the line printer.

   Variable substitution    [Toc]    [Back]
     The shell maintains a set of variables, each of which has as value a list
     of zero or more words.  Some of these variables are set by the shell or
     referred to by it.  For instance, the argv variable is an image of the
     shell's argument list, and words of this variable's value are referred to
     in special ways.

     The values of variables may be displayed and changed by using the set and
     unset commands.  Of the variables referred to by the shell a number are
     toggles; the shell does not care what their value is, only whether they
     are set or not.  For instance, the verbose variable is a toggle that
     causes command input to be echoed.  The setting of this variable results
     from the -v command-line option.

     Other operations treat variables numerically.  The @ command permits
     numeric calculations to be performed and the result assigned to a variable.
  Variable values are, however, always represented as (zero or more)
     strings.  For the purposes of numeric operations, the null string is considered
 to be zero, and the second and additional words of multiword values
 are ignored.

     After the input line is aliased and parsed, and before each command is
     executed, variable substitution is performed keyed by `$' characters.
     This expansion can be prevented by preceding the `$' with a `\' except
     within "'s where it always occurs, and within ''s where it never occurs.
     Strings quoted by backticks (` `) are interpreted later (see Command
     substitution below) so `$' substitution does not occur there until later,
     if at all.  A `$' is passed unchanged if followed by a blank, tab, or

     Input/output redirections are recognized before variable expansion, and
     are variable expanded separately.	Otherwise, the command name and entire
     argument list are expanded together.  It is thus possible for the first
     (command) word (to this point) to generate more than one word, the first
     of which becomes the command name, and the rest of which become arguments.

     Unless enclosed in `"' or given the `:q' modifier, the results of variable
 substitution may eventually be command and filename substituted.
     Within `"', a variable whose value consists of multiple words expands to
     a (portion of) a single word, with the words of the variables value separated
 by blanks.  When the `:q' modifier is applied to a substitution the
     variable will expand to multiple words with each word separated by a
     blank and quoted to prevent later command or filename substitution.

     The following metasequences are provided for introducing variable values
     into the shell input.  Except as noted, it is an error to reference a
     variable that is not set.

		   Are replaced by the words of the value of variable name,
		   each separated by a blank.  Braces insulate name from following
 characters that would otherwise be part of it.
		   Shell variables have names consisting of up to 20 letters
		   and digits starting with a letter.  The underscore character
 is considered a letter.	If name is not a shell variable,
 but is set in the environment, then that value is
		   returned (but `:' modifiers and the other forms given below
		   are not available here).
		   May be used to select only some of the words from the value
		   of name.  The selector is subjected to `$' substitution and
		   may consist of a single number or two numbers separated by
		   a `-'.  The first word of a variables value is numbered
		   `1'.  If the first number of a range is omitted it defaults
		   to `1'.  If the last number of a range is omitted it
		   defaults to `$#name'.  The selector `*' selects all words.
		   It is not an error for a range to be empty if the second
		   argument is omitted or in range.
		   Gives the number of words in the variable.  This is useful
		   for later use in a ``$argv[selector]''.
	   $0	   Substitutes the name of the file from which command input
		   is being read.  An error occurs if the name is not known.
		   Equivalent to ``$argv[number]''.
	   $*	   Equivalent to ``$argv[*]''.

     The modifiers `:e', `:h', `:t', `:r', `:q', and `:x' may be applied to
     the substitutions above as may `:gh', `:gt', and `:gr'.  If braces `{'
     `}' appear in the command form then the modifiers must appear within the
     braces.  The current implementation allows only one `:' modifier on each
     `$' expansion.

     The following substitutions may not be modified with `:' modifiers.
		   Substitutes the string ``1'' if name is set, ``0'' if it is
	   $?0	   Substitutes `1' if the current input filename is known, `0'
		   if it is not.
	   $$	   Substitute the (decimal) process number of the (parent)
		   shell.  Do NOT use this mechanism for generating temporary
		   file names; see mktemp(1) instead.
	   $!	   Substitute the (decimal) process number of the last background
 process started by this shell.
	   $<	   Substitutes a line from the standard input, with no further
		   interpretation.  It can be used to read from the keyboard
		   in a shell script.

   Command and filename substitution    [Toc]    [Back]
     The remaining substitutions, command and filename substitution, are
     applied selectively to the arguments of built-in commands.  By selectively,
 we mean that portions of expressions which are not evaluated are
     not subjected to these expansions.  For commands that are not internal to
     the shell, the command name is substituted separately from the argument
     list.  This occurs very late, after input-output redirection is performed,
 and in a child of the main shell.

   Command substitution    [Toc]    [Back]
     Command substitution is shown by a command enclosed in ``'.  The output
     from such a command is normally broken into separate words at blanks,
     tabs, and newlines, with null words being discarded; this text then
     replaces the original string.  Within "'s, only newlines force new words;
     blanks and tabs are preserved.

     In any case, the single final newline does not force a new word.  Note
     that it is thus possible for a command substitution to yield only part of
     a word, even if the command outputs a complete line.

   Filename substitution    [Toc]    [Back]
     If a word contains any of the characters `*', `'?, [`', or `{', or begins
     with the character `~', then that word is a candidate for filename substitution,
 also known as ``globbing''.  This word is then regarded as a
     pattern, and replaced with an alphabetically sorted list of file names
     that match the pattern.  In a list of words specifying filename substitution
 it is an error for no pattern to match an existing file name, but it
     is not required for each pattern to match.  Only the metacharacters `*',
     `'?, and [`' imply pattern matching, the characters `~' and `{' being
     more akin to abbreviations.

     In matching filenames, the character `.' at the beginning of a filename
     or immediately following a `/', as well as the character `/' must be
     matched explicitly.  The character `*' matches any string of characters,
     including the null string.  The character `'?  matches any single character.
  The sequence ``[...]'' matches any one of the characters enclosed.
     Within ``[...]'', a pair of characters separated by `-' matches any character
 lexically between the two (inclusive).

     The character `~' at the beginning of a filename refers to home directories.
  Standing alone, i.e., `~', it expands to the invokers home directory
 as reflected in the value of the variable home.  When followed by a
     name consisting of letters, digits, and `-' characters, the shell
     searches for a user with that name and substitutes their home directory;
     thus ``~ken'' might expand to ``/usr/ken'' and ``~ken/chmach'' to
     ``/usr/ken/chmach''.  If the character `~' is followed by a character
     other than a letter or `/', or does not appear at the beginning of a
     word, it is left undisturbed.

     The metanotation ``a{b,c,d}e'' is a shorthand for ``abe ace ade''.  Left
     to right order is preserved, with results of matches being sorted separately
 at a low level to preserve this order.  This construct may be
     nested.  Thus, ``~source/s1/{oldls,ls}.c'' expands to
     ``/usr/source/s1/oldls.c /usr/source/s1/ls.c'' without chance of error if
     the home directory for ``source'' is ``/usr/source''.  Similarly
     ``../{memo,*box}'' might expand to ``../memo ../box ../mbox''.  (Note
     that ``memo'' was not sorted with the results of the match to ``*box''.)
     As a special case `{', `}', and `{}' are passed undisturbed.

     The standard input and the standard output of a command may be redirected
     with the following syntax:

	   < name  Open file name (which is first variable, command, and filename
 expanded) as the standard input.
	   << word
		   Read the shell input up to a line that is identical to
		   word.  word is not subjected to variable, command, or filename
 substitution, and each input line is compared to word
		   before any substitutions are done on the input line.
		   Unless a quoting `\', `"', `'' or ``' appears in word,
		   variable and command substitution is performed on the
		   intervening lines, allowing `\' to quote `$', `\' and ``'.
		   Commands that are substituted have all blanks, tabs, and
		   newlines preserved, except for the final newline which is
		   dropped.  The resultant text is placed in an anonymous temporary
 file that is given to the command as its standard
	   > name
	   >! name
	   >& name
	   >&! name
		   The file name is used as the standard output.  If the file
		   does not exist then it is created; if the file exists, it
		   is truncated; its previous contents are lost.

		   If the variable noclobber is set, then the file must not
		   exist or be a character special file (e.g., a terminal or
		   /dev/null) or an error results.  This helps prevent accidental
 destruction of files.  Here, the `'!	forms can be
		   used to suppress this check.

		   The forms involving `&' route the standard error output
		   into the specified file as well as the standard output.
		   name is expanded in the same way as `<' input filenames
	   >> name
	   >>& name
	   >>! name
	   >>&! name
		   Uses file name as the standard output; like `>' but places
		   output at the end of the file.  If the variable noclobber
		   is set, then it is an error for the file not to exist
		   unless one of the `'!  forms is given.  Otherwise similar
		   to `>'.

     A command receives the environment in which the shell was invoked as modified
 by the input-output parameters and the presence of the command in a
     pipeline.	Thus, unlike some previous shells, commands run from a file of
     shell commands have no access to the text of the commands by default;
     instead they receive the original standard input of the shell.  The `<<'
     mechanism should be used to present inline data.  This permits shell command
 scripts to function as components of pipelines and allows the shell
     to block read its input.  Note that the default standard input for a command
 run detached is not modified to be the empty file /dev/null; instead
     the standard input remains as the original standard input of the shell.
     If this is a terminal and if the process attempts to read from the terminal,
 then the process will block and the user will be notified (see Jobs

     The standard error output may be directed through a pipe with the standard
 output.  Simply use the form `|&' instead of just `|'.

   Expressions    [Toc]    [Back]
     Several of the built-in commands (to be described later) take expressions,
 in which the operators are similar to those of C, with the same
     precedence, but with the opposite grouping: right to left.  These expressions
 appear in the @, exit, if, and while commands.  The following operators
 are available:

	   ||  &&  | ^	&  ==  !=  =~  !~  <=  >= <  > <<  >>  +  -  *	/  %
	   !  ~  (  )

     Here the precedence increases to the right, `==' `!=' `=~' and `!~', `<='
     `>=' `<' and `>', `<<' and `>>', `+' and `-', `*' `/' and `%' being, in
     groups, at the same level.  The `==' `!=' `=~' and `!~' operators compare
     their arguments as strings; all others operate on numbers.  The operators
     `=~' and `!~' are like `!=' and `==' except that the right hand side is a
     pattern (containing, e.g., *'s, ?'s, and instances of ``[...]'') against
     which the left-hand operand is matched.  This reduces the need for use of
     the switch statement in shell scripts when all that is really needed is
     pattern matching.

     Strings that begin with `0' are considered octal numbers.	Null or missing
 arguments are considered `0'.	The result of all expressions are
     strings, which represent decimal numbers.	It is important to note that
     no two components of an expression can appear in the same word; except
     when adjacent to components of expressions that are syntactically significant
 to the parser (`&', `|', `<', `>', (`', and `)'), they should be
     surrounded by spaces.

     Also available in expressions as primitive operands are command executions
 enclosed in `{' and `}' and file enquiries of the form -l name
     where l is one of:

	   r	   read access
	   w	   write access
	   x	   execute access
	   e	   existence
	   o	   ownership
	   z	   zero size
	   f	   plain file
	   d	   directory

     The specified name is command and filename expanded and then tested to
     see if it has the specified relationship to the real user.  If the file
     does not exist or is inaccessible then all enquiries return false, i.e.,
     `0'.  Command executions succeed, returning true, i.e., `1', if the command
 exits with status 0, otherwise they fail, returning false, i.e.,
     `0'.  If more detailed status information is required then the command
     should be executed outside an expression and the variable status examined.

   Control flow    [Toc]    [Back]
     The shell contains several commands that can be used to regulate the flow
     of control in command files (shell scripts) and (in limited but useful
     ways) from terminal input.  These commands all operate by forcing the
     shell to reread or skip in its input and, because of the implementation,
     restrict the placement of some of the commands.

     The foreach, switch, and while statements, as well as the if-then-else
     form of the if statement require that the major keywords appear in a single
 simple command on an input line as shown below.

     If the shell's input is not seekable, the shell buffers up input whenever
     a loop is being read and performs seeks in this internal buffer to accomplish
 the rereading implied by the loop.  (To the extent that this
     allows, backward goto's will succeed on non-seekable inputs.)

   Built-in commands    [Toc]    [Back]
     Built-in commands are executed within the shell.  If a built-in command
     occurs as any component of a pipeline except the last then it is executed
     in a sub-shell.

	   alias name
	   alias name wordlist
		   The first form prints all aliases.  The second form prints
		   the alias for name.	The final form assigns the specified
		   wordlist as the alias of name; wordlist is command and
		   filename substituted.  name is not allowed to be ``alias''
		   or ``unalias''.

	   alloc   Shows the amount of dynamic memory acquired, broken down
		   into used and free memory.  With an argument shows the number
 of free and used blocks in each size category.  The
		   categories start at size 8 and double at each step.	This
		   command's output may vary across system types, since systems
 other than the VAX may use a different memory allocator.

	   bg %job ...
		   Puts the current or specified jobs into the background,
		   continuing them if they were stopped.

	   break   Causes execution to resume after the end of the nearest
		   enclosing foreach or while.	The remaining commands on the
		   current line are executed.  Multi-level breaks are thus
		   possible by writing them all on one line.

		   Causes a break from a switch, resuming after the endsw.

	   case label:
		   A label in a switch statement as discussed below.

	   cd name
	   chdir name
		   Change the shell's working directory to directory name.  If
		   no argument is given then change to the home directory of
		   the user.  If name is not found as a subdirectory of the
		   current directory (and does not begin with `/', `./' or
		   `../'), then each component of the variable cdpath is
		   checked to see if it has a subdirectory name.  Finally, if
		   all else fails but name is a shell variable whose value
		   begins with `/', then this is tried to see if it is a

		   Continue execution of the nearest enclosing while or
		   foreach.  The rest of the commands on the current line are

		   Labels the default case in a switch statement.  The default
		   should come after all case labels.

	   dirs    Prints the directory stack; the top of the stack is at the
		   left, the first directory in the stack being the current

	   echo wordlist
	   echo -n wordlist
		   The specified words are written to the shell's standard
		   output, separated by spaces, and terminated with a newline
		   unless the -n option is specified.

	   endsw   See the description of the foreach, if, switch, and while
		   statements below.

	   eval arg ...
		   (As in sh(1).)  The arguments are read as input to the
		   shell and the resulting command(s) executed in the context
		   of the current shell.  This is usually used to execute commands
 generated as the result of command or variable substitution,
 since parsing occurs before these substitutions.
		   See tset(1) for an example of using eval.

	   exec command
		   The specified command is executed in place of the current

	   exit (expr)
		   The shell exits either with the value of the status variable
 (first form) or with the value of the specified expr
		   (second form).

	   fg %job ...
		   Brings the current or specified jobs into the foreground,
		   continuing them if they were stopped.

	   foreach name (wordlist)
	   end	   The variable name is successively set to each member of
		   wordlist and the sequence of commands between this command
		   and the matching end are executed.  (Both foreach and end
		   must appear alone on separate lines.)  The built-in command
		   continue may be used to continue the loop prematurely and
		   the built-in command break to terminate it prematurely.
		   When this command is read from the terminal, the loop is
		   read once prompting with `'?  before any statements in the
		   loop are executed.  If you make a mistake typing in a loop
		   at the terminal you can rub it out.

	   glob wordlist
		   Like echo but no `\' escapes are recognized and words are
		   delimited by NUL characters in the output.  Useful for programs
 that wish to use the shell to filename expand a list
		   of words.

	   goto word
		   The specified word is filename and command expanded to
		   yield a string of the form `label'.	The shell rewinds its
		   input as much as possible and searches for a line of the
		   form ``label:'', possibly preceded by blanks or tabs.  Execution
 continues after the specified line.

		   Print a statistics line showing how effective the internal
		   hash table has been at locating commands (and avoiding
		   exec's).  An exec is attempted for each component of the
		   path where the hash function indicates a possible hit, and
		   in each component that does not begin with a `/'.

	   history n
	   history -r n
	   history -h n
		   Displays the history event list; if n is given, only the n
		   most recent events are printed.  The -r option reverses the
		   order of printout to be most recent first instead of oldest
		   first.  The -h option causes the history list to be printed
		   without leading numbers.  This format produces files suitable
 for sourcing using the -h option to source.

	   if (expr) command
		   If the specified expression evaluates true, then the single
		   command with arguments is executed.	Variable substitution
		   on command happens early, at the same time it does for the
		   rest of the if command.  command must be a simple command,
		   not a pipeline, a command list, or a parenthesized command
		   list.  Input/output redirection occurs even if expr is
		   false, i.e., when command is not executed (this is a bug).

	   if (expr) then
	   else if (expr2) then
	   endif   If the specified expr is true then the commands up to the
		   first else are executed; otherwise if expr2 is true then
		   the commands up to the second else are executed, etc.  Any
		   number of else-if pairs are possible; only one endif is
		   needed.  The else part is likewise optional.  (The words
		   else and endif must appear at the beginning of input lines;
		   the if must appear alone on its input line or after an

	   jobs -l
		   Lists the active jobs; the -l option lists process IDs in
		   addition to the normal information.

	   kill %job
	   kill    [-s signal_name] pid
	   kill -sig pid ...
	   kill -l [exit_status]
		   Sends either the SIGTERM (terminate) signal or the specified
 signal to the specified jobs or processes.  Signals
		   are either given by number or by names (as given in
		   <signal.h>, stripped of the prefix ``SIG'').  The signal
		   names are listed by ``kill -l''; if an exit_status is specified,
 only the corresponding signal name will be written.
		   There is no default; just saying ``kill'' does not send a
		   signal to the current job.  If the signal being sent is
		   SIGTERM (terminate) or SIGHUP (hangup), then the job or
		   process will be sent a SIGCONT (continue) signal as well.

	   limit resource
	   limit resource maximum-use
	   limit -h
	   limit -h resource
	   limit -h resource maximum-use
		   Limits the consumption by the current process and each
		   process it creates to not individually exceed maximum-use
		   on the specified resource.  If no maximum-use is given,
		   then the current limit is printed; if no resource is given,
		   then all limitations are given.  If the -h flag is given,
		   the hard limits are used instead of the current limits.
		   The hard limits impose a ceiling on the values of the current
 limits.  Only the superuser may raise the hard limits,
		   but a user may lower or raise the current limits within the
		   legal range.

		   Resources controllable currently include cputime (the maximum
 number of cpu-seconds to be used by each process),
		   filesize (the largest single file that can be created),
		   datasize (the maximum growth of the data+stack region via
		   sbrk(2) beyond the end of the program text), stacksize (the
		   maximum size of the automatically extended stack region),
		   and coredumpsize (the size of the largest core dump that
		   will be created).

		   The maximum-use may be given as a (floating point or integer)
 number followed by a scale factor.  For all limits
		   other than cputime the default scale is `k' or
		   ``kilobytes'' (1024 bytes); a scale factor of `m' or
		   ``megabytes'' may also be used.  For cputime the default
		   scale is ``seconds''; a scale factor of `m' for minutes or
		   `h' for hours, or a time of the form ``mm:ss'' giving minutes
 and seconds also may be used.

		   For both resource names and scale factors, unambiguous prefixes
 of the names suffice.

	   login   Terminate a login shell, replacing it with an instance of
		   /usr/bin/login.  This is one way to log off, included for
		   compatibility with sh(1).

	   logout  Terminate a login shell.  Especially useful if ignoreeof is

	   nice +number
	   nice command
	   nice +number command
		   The first form sets the scheduling priority for this shell
		   to 4.  The second form sets the priority to the given
		   number.  The final two forms run command at priority 4 and
		   number respectively.  The greater the number, the less CPU
		   the process will get.  The superuser may specify negative
		   priority by using ``nice -number ...''.  command is always
		   executed in a sub-shell, and the restrictions placed on
		   commands in simple if statements apply.

	   nohup command
		   The first form can be used in shell scripts to cause
		   hangups to be ignored for the remainder of the script.  The
		   second form causes the specified command to be run with
		   hangups ignored.  All processes detached with `&' are
		   effectively nohup'ed.

	   notify %job ...
		   Causes the shell to notify the user asynchronously when the
		   status of the current or specified jobs change; normally
		   notification is presented before a prompt.  This is automatic
 if the shell variable notify is set.

	   onintr -
	   onintr label
		   Control the action of the shell on interrupts.  The first
		   form restores the default action of the shell on interrupts
		   which is to terminate shell scripts or to return to the
		   terminal command input level.  The second form onintr -
		   causes all interrupts to be ignored.  The final form causes
		   the shell to execute a goto label when an interrupt is
		   received or a child process terminates because it was

		   In any case, if the shell is running detached and interrupts
 are being ignored, all forms of onintr have no meaning
 and interrupts continue to be ignored by the shell and
		   all invoked commands.  Finally, onintr statements are
		   ignored in the system startup files where interrupts are
		   disabled (/etc/csh.cshrc, /etc/csh.login).

	   popd +n
		   Pops the directory stack, returning to the new top directory.
  With an argument ``+ n''discards the n'th entry in
		   the stack.  The members of the directory stack are numbered
		   from the top starting at 0.

	   printf format-string values
		   Invokes a built-in version of printf after evaluating the
		   format-string and values.  See the printf(1) manpage for

	   pushd name
	   pushd n
		   With no arguments, pushd exchanges the top two elements of
		   the directory stack.  Given a name argument, pushd changes
		   to the new directory (ala cd) and pushes the old current
		   working directory (as in cwd) onto the directory stack.
		   With a numeric argument, pushd rotates the n'th argument of
		   the directory stack around to be the top element and
		   changes to it.  The members of the directory stack are numbered
 from the top starting at 0.

	   rehash  Causes the internal hash table of the contents of the
		   directories in the path variable to be recomputed.  This is
		   needed if new commands are added to directories in the path
		   while you are logged in.  This should only be necessary if
		   you add commands to one of your own directories, or if a
		   systems programmer changes the contents of a system directory.

	   repeat count command
		   The specified command which is subject to the same restrictions
 as the command in the one line if statement above, is
		   executed count times.  I/O redirections occur exactly once,
		   even if count is 0.

	   set name
	   set name=word
	   set name[index]=word
	   set name=(wordlist)
		   The first form of the command shows the value of all shell
		   variables.  Variables that have other than a single word as
		   their value print as a parenthesized word list.  The second
		   form sets name to the null string.  The third form sets
		   name to the single word.  The fourth form sets the index'th
		   component of name to word; this component must already
		   exist.  The final form sets name to the list of words in
		   wordlist.  The value is always command and filename

		   These arguments may be repeated to set multiple values in a
		   single set command.	Note however, that variable expansion
		   happens for all arguments before any setting occurs.

	   setenv name
	   setenv name value
		   The first form lists all current environment variables.  It
		   is equivalent to printenv(1).  The last form sets the value
		   of environment variable name to be value, a single string.
		   The second form sets name to an empty string.  The most
		   commonly used environment variables USER, TERM, and PATH
		   are automatically imported to and exported from the csh
		   variables user, term, and path; there is no need to use
		   setenv for these.

	   shift variable
		   The members of argv are shifted to the left, discarding
		   argv[1].  It is an error for argv not to be set or to have
		   less than one word as value.  The second form performs the
		   same function on the specified variable.

	   source name
	   source -h name
		   The shell reads commands from name.	source commands may be
		   nested; if they are nested too deeply the shell may run out
		   of file descriptors.  An error in a source at any level
		   terminates all nested source commands.  Normally input during
 source commands is not placed on the history list; the
		   -h option causes the commands to be placed on the history
		   list without being executed.

	   stop %job ...
		   Stops the current or specified jobs that are executing in
		   the background.

		   Causes the shell to stop in its tracks, much as if it had
		   been sent a stop signal with ^Z.  This is most often used
		   to stop shells started by su(1).

	   switch (string)
	   case str1:
	   endsw   Each case label is successively matched against the specified
 string which is first command and filename expanded.
		   The file metacharacters `*', `'?  and ``[...]'' may be used
		   in the case labels, which are variable expanded.  If none
		   of the labels match before the ``default'' label is found,
		   then the execution begins after the default label.  Each
		   case label and the default label must appear at the beginning
 of a line.  The command breaksw causes execution to
		   continue after the endsw.  Otherwise control may fall
		   through case labels and the default label as in C.  If no
		   label matches and there is no default, execution continues
		   after the endsw.

	   time command
		   With no argument, a summary of time used by this shell and
		   its children is printed.  If arguments are given the specified
 simple command is timed and a time summary as
		   described under the time variable is printed.  If necessary,
 an extra shell is created to print the time statistic
		   when the command completes.

	   umask value
		   The file creation mask is displayed (first form) or set to
		   the specified value (second form).  The mask is given in
		   octal.  Common values for the mask are 002 giving all
		   access to the group and read and execute access to others
		   or 022 giving all access except write access for users in
		   the group or others.

	   unalias pattern
		   All aliases whose names match the specified pattern are
		   discarded.  Thus all aliases are removed by unalias *.  It
		   is not an error for nothing to be unaliased.

	   unhash  Use of the internal hash table to speed location of executed
 programs is disabled.

	   unlimit resource
	   unlimit -h
	   unlimit -h resource
		   Removes the limitation on resource.	If no resource is
		   specified, then all resource limitations are removed.  If
		   -h is given, the corresponding hard limits are removed.
		   Only the superuser may do this.

	   unset pattern
		   All variables whose names match the specified pattern are
		   removed.  Thus all variables are removed by unset *; this
		   has noticeably distasteful side-effects.  It is not an
		   error for nothing to be unset.

	   unsetenv pattern
		   Removes all variables whose name match the specified pattern
 from the environment.  See also the setenv command
		   above and printenv(1).

	   wait    Wait for all background jobs.  If the shell is interactive,
		   then an interrupt can disrupt the wait.  After the interrupt,
 the shell prints names and job numbers of all jobs
		   known to be outstanding.

	   which command
		   Displays the resolved command that will be executed by the

	   while (expr)
	   end	   While the specified expression evaluates non-zero, the commands
 between the while and the matching end are evaluated.
		   break and continue may be used to terminate or continue the
		   loop prematurely.  (The while and end must appear alone on
		   their input lines.)	Prompting occurs here the first time
		   through the loop as for the foreach statement if the input
		   is a terminal.

	   %job    Brings the specified job into the foreground.

	   %job &  Continues the specified job in the background.

	   @ name= expr
	   @ name[index]= expr
		   The first form prints the values of all the shell variables.
  The second form sets the specified name to the
		   value of expr.  If the expression contains `<', `>', `&' or
		   `|' then at least this part of the expression must be
		   placed within (`' `)'.  The third form assigns the value of
		   expr to the index'th argument of name.  Both name and its
		   index'th component must already exist.

     The operators `*=', `+=', etc. are available as in C.  The space separating
 the name from the assignment operator is optional.  Spaces are, however,
 mandatory in separating components of expr which would otherwise be
     single words.

     Special postfix `++' and `--' operators increment and decrement name
     respectively; i.e., ``@ i++''.

   Pre-defined and environment variables    [Toc]    [Back]
     The following variables have special meaning to the shell.  Of these,
     argv, cwd, home, path, prompt, shell and status are always set by the
     shell.  Except for cwd and status, this setting occurs only at initialization;
 these variables will not then be modified unless done explicitly
     by the user.

     The shell copies the environment variable USER into the variable 
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