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GR_OSVIEW(1)							  GR_OSVIEW(1)

NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     gr_osview - graphical system monitor

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     gr_osview [-hVLeapzEF] [-Dfile] [-sfile] [-N[user@]node] [-nnamelist]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     This command provides a graphical display of usage	of certain types of
     system resources.	This display provides a	real-time window into the
     overall operation of the system.  The main	display	element	is a
     rectangular area which is filled by uniquely colored bands, each band
     signifying	a sampled variable measuring system performance.  This
     rectangular area is called	a bar throughout the rest of this description.

     Each bar in a window has a	header which consists of the bar title plus
     the names of each variable	displayed, in colors to	match those used for
     each band in the bar.  The	colors used, as	well as	size, layout,
     background	and foreground colors may be modified.

     gr_osview is implemented using a client-server model.  The	server side
     acts as a simple display engine, while the	client acts as a data
     generator.	 By default, client and	server are invoked as a	tightly
     coupled process for optimal performance.  However,	the client (datacollection)
 side can be automatically run on a remote machine while the
     server runs locally, allowing remote monitoring of	system performance.
     Server and	client operation can be	used independently through the use of
     gr_osview "export"	files, allowing	recording and playback of performance
     monitoring	sessions.

     This man page describes Version 2.2 of gr_osview.	Setup files from
     previous versions of gr_osview are	accepted, however remote operation is
     only possible with	a gr_osview of the same	version.

     gr_osview is driven by a setup file.  The setup file may be explicitly
     named on the command line,	found through an environment variable, or in
     the caller's home directory.  A complete description of the format	and
     additional	capabilities of	the setup file is given	below.

OPTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The following options are supported:

     -h	       Print a summary of the available	options.

     -D	file   This option specifies where the setup file will come from.  If
	       the file	"-" is named, then the setup will be read from
	       standard	input.	If this	option is not specified, the
	       environment variable GROSVIEW is	checked	for a setup file name.
	       If this variable	is not set, then a file	named ".grosview" is
	       scanned for in the invoker's home directory.  If	all this
	       fails, a	default	setup of a single CPU usage bar	is used.

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	       gr_osview will automatically recognize a	gr_osview "export"
	       file if found instead of	a setup	file.  This causes gr_osview
	       to automatically	act as a display server, playing back the data
	       in the file.

     -s	file   This option specifies the creation of an	"export" file.	This
	       file is an ASCII	text file containing the information needed to
	       initialize the display server properly, followed	by an
	       arbitrary number	of data	samples.

     -N	[user@]host
	       Contact the remote host,	using the given	user ID	if specified,
	       and monitor that	host's performance on the local	machine.  The
	       window border is	forced in this case, and the argument is used
	       as the window title.  If	user is	not specified, the user	ID
	       "guest" is used.

	       gr_osview will automatically attempt to re-connect to the
	       remote system if	the connection is lost for some	reason.	 If
	       system errors or	other problems which would preclude successful
	       reconnection are	present, then gr_osview	will simply exit.

     -F	       This option suppresses text output.  This can be	useful in
	       several situations, for instance	when creating a	very small
	       gr_osview display where the text	would be illegible anyway.  As
	       a side effect, max value	and average counters, and the scale
	       for absolute bars are suppressed.

     -E	       This option directs gr_osview to	act simply as a	data
	       generator, and an "export" file will be written to standard
	       output, with continuous writing of sampled data until the
	       program is killed.  The -D option is handled as expected,
	       except that if an "export" file is passed, gr_osview uses only
	       the initialization information and generates new	data samples
	       from the	running	system.

     -V	       Print the current version and copyright information for the

     -a	       This option invokes a subset of the displayable bars that
	       includes: cpu usage, memory usage, cpu wait time, system
	       activity	and graphics activity.

     -p	       This option prints the window position and size after the
	       window has been laid out	on standard input.  This is useful for
	       programming setup scripts.

     -z	       This option enables "freeze" toggling.  Sending SIGUSR1 (see
	       signal(2)) to gr_osview will freeze and unfreeze	the display.
	       If currently generating a gr_osview "export" file, it will also
	       stop any	output to the file.  This is useful when doing screen
	       dumps or	snapshoting particular events.

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GR_OSVIEW(1)							  GR_OSVIEW(1)

     -e	       This option is only effective when gr_osview is reading an
	       "export"	file.  It instructs gr_osview to exit when the data in
	       the file	is exhausted.  By default, the display window is left
	       up, frozen at the last data sample.

     -L	       This option causes gr_osview to lock down those pages which it
	       actually	uses while running and prevent the process from
	       swapping.  This enables a minimum number	of pages to be locked
	       while keeping gr_osview performing as a real-time display under
	       heavy system load.

     -n	       This option causes gr_osview to use a kernel namelist other
	       than the	default, /unix.	This option is currently not supported
	       with -N.

OVERVIEW    [Toc]    [Back]

     There are three potential formats for each	bar, with various optional
     features.	Each bar has a header line, which gives	the bar	name and the
     names of its parameters, plus some	additional information depending on
     the bar type.  Below this is the actual bar.  Parameters are such things
     as	the various elements of	CPU usage: user	time, system time, interrupt
     overhead and idle time.  The text of a parameter name in the header is
     colored to	match the associated part of the bar display.

     The most common format is called moving bar format.  In this format, the
     information is displayed as a sectioned bar, each section being a
     different color.  As time passes, each section will be redrawn with its
     length adjusted proportionally to the value of the	parameter.  To obtain
     smooth motion, and	damp peaks and valleys which would otherwise be
     visually confusing, each section of the bar is averaged over a specific
     number of intervals.  For instance, if a parameter	doubles	in value, the
     section will gradually double in length over a certain number of samples.
     By	setting	the sample interval, the user can control the update rate of
     the bar information.  The default is 2/10 second, which provides smooth
     visual motion.  A bar border is supplied by default which includes	a
     heavy lower border	marked in 1/10 increments for easier estimation.  This
     border can	be suppressed completely, or the ruler can be suppressed.

     There are two subformats for the moving bar: relative and absolute.  In
     relative mode, the	displayed values must all add up to 100% and are
     relative only to each other.  In absolute mode, the bar displays an
     indicator of events per second over the sample interval, and the header
     includes the sample interval.  The	bar itself will	auto-scale; this means
     that the scale used will vary automatically (with some hysteresis)	as the
     number of events changes.	The scale value	being used is displayed	above
     the right-hand edge of the	bar.  The property of relative or absolute
     display is	a characteristic of the	type of	data being displayed, and is
     not under control of the user.

     The scale value can be locked, in which case autoscaling is disabled, and
     the scale value is	inverted in color to indicate locked operation.	 The
     user may specify that the bar scale be locked and its value.  If instead

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     the user asks the scale to	creep, the scale factor	will only increase,
     and never decrease.

     The second	format is called strip chart format.  Any moving bar may also
     be	displayed as a strip chart.  In	this mode, instead of being displayed
     horizontally, the bar is drawn vertically at the right hand edge of the
     bar after moving the bar down by the size of a single sample.  This forms
     a strip-chart effect.  The	number of samples and the sample interval can
     be	changed.  The header of	an absolute bar	displayed as a strip chart
     will indicate the overall time shown by the strip instead of the sample
     interval time.  Finally, tick marks may be	added to the strip to ease

     If	the strip chart	format is used for an absolute bar type, and the scale
     is	not locked, then autoscaling causes an additional action.  When	the
     scale changes, a red line is drawn	through	the bar	at the point at	which
     the scale changed,	and the	remainder of the bar is	drawn in a gray	color,
     showing only the outline of the parameter values.	This shows that	the
     scale changed, and	the grayed out data is invalid.

     In	either of the above bar	formats, and if	the bar	type is	absolute, then
     some additional display options are available.  In	max value mode,	the
     bar display area is compressed and	a text field is	added to the right of
     the bar showing the maximum value ever achieved by	the sum	of the
     parameters.  By default, this number is displayed as red on black,	in the
     upper part	of the bar area.  If the user desires, then this maximum can
     be	automatically reset to a lower value if	the current value remains
     below it for some number of intervals.  This gives	the effect of a	"peak"
     meter, holding a maximum long enough for the user to note it.

     If	tracking mode is enabled, then a text field is added at	the right of
     the bar below the maximum value field showing the average of the sum of
     the parameters over an interval.  By default, this	number is displayed as
     blue on white.

     Each of these modes displays a calculated events-per-second ratio.	 If
     the sample	interval is much smaller than one second, then the displays
     will show the "burst" rate	achieved at the	sample interval.  The system
     may not be	able to	sustain	this rate over longer periods of time.	To get
     an	accurate measure at any	interval, simply adjust	the sample interval as
     described below.

     The number	shown for each of these	modes, as well as the value used for
     scaling, are usually calculated for a subset of the parameters shown in
     the bar.  For example, if displaying memory usage,	the counters and scale
     will not include the free memory in the system.

     The third main format is numeric format.  This format is currently	only
     available for absolute value bar types.  Instead of a graphic display,
     the bar is	replaced by a text display area	in which the actual values of
     the parameters are	displayed.  In contrast	to the other displays, the
     parameter values are given	over the whole sample interval rather than

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     scaled to units per second.  This allows a	long sample time for slow
     changing parameters.

     By	default, the current values of the parameters are displayed in the
     same color	as the graphical display would use just	below each parameter
     name in the header.  If max value mode is turned on, then a listing of
     the maximum value seen for	each parameter is given	below the current
     values, except that all text is displayed in the current maximum display
     foreground	color, which is	red by default.	 If tracking mode is turned
     on, then the average numeric values are summed and	displayed to the right
     in	the foreground color, with an appropriate title.

     The behavior of the max value and average modes is	intuitively similar to
     that for a	moving bar, except each	parameter is handled independently.

SETUP FILE    [Toc]    [Back]

     The setup file provides a simple mechanism	for initializing a large
     number of possible	parameters for the gr_osview display.  The setup file
     is	an ASCII file.	Comment	lines are delimited by a # character in	the
     first column, and blank lines are ignored.	 In addition, trailing
     comments may be added using a # character,	after which all	data on	the
     line is ignored.  Lines containing	information may	be classed into	two
     types, monitor lines and option lines.  Monitor lines describe the	format
     of	an individual bar, while option	lines describe global parameters.  The
     monitor bars in the gr_osview window are brought up in the	same order
     they are found in the setup file.	A particular monitor bar may be
     entered several times, possibly with many different options.

     Each monitor line consists	of a name followed by zero or more modifier
     options.  The following monitor bars are available:

	  cpu	    - monitor CPU usage
	  rmem	    - monitor real memory usage
	  rmemc	    - monitor real memory usage
	  wait	    - monitor time waiting for I/O
	  sysact    - monitor important	system activity
	  gfx	    - monitor important	graphics activity
	  bdev	    - monitor block device throughput
	  fault	    - monitor page faults
	  tlb	    - monitor TLB activity
	  intr	    - monitor interrupts
	  pswap	    - monitor page swapping activity
	  nettcp    - monitor TCP protocol activity
	  netudp    - monitor UDP protocol activity
	  netip	    - monitor IP layer activity
	  netif	    - monitor network interface	activity
	  disk	    - monitor disk usage
	  swp	    - monitor logical swap space

     The cpu, netif and	disk bars have special formats.	 The cpu bar may have
     an	optional argument which	indicates a particular CPU to monitor (if more
     than one is present in the	system).  In this case,	the descriptor takes

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     the form:

	  cpu(n)	 - monitor CPU number n

     If	the word sum is	given instead, the bar monitors	the sum	of all CPU
     activity in the system in a single	bar.

     The netif bar may have an optional	argument which indicates a particular
     interface to monitor, or it may indicate that only	the sum	of all network
     interface activity	is to be monitored.  By	default, a bar is generated
     for each network interface	on the system except for the local loopback
     interface.	 If a name is given, the descriptor takes the form:

	  netif(name)	 - monitor interface name name

     Typical interface names are et0, for the built-in ethernet	interface on
     the POWERSeries, lo0 for the local	loopback interface, enp0 for the
     standard Professional IRIS	VMEbus ethernet	card, and ec0 for the Personal
     IRIS built-in ethernet interface.	If the word sum	is given instead, the
     bar monitors the sum of all interface traffic for the system.

     The disk bar requires an argument describing the volume to	monitor.  The
     form of the descriptor is:

	  disk(path)	 - monitor the volume given by path

     The path argument can name	a filesystem in	one of two ways.  If it	names
     a block special device, then that device is assumed to contain an EFS or
     XFS filesystem, and usage is monitored with the special file name used as
     the bar header.  Otherwise, the argument is assumed to name a file
     residing on some mounted volume.  The path	name passed in is used as the
     header.  The bar scale is set at the number of megabytes of storage on
     the volume.

     The scale number for the real memory bars,	rmem and rmemc,	is the number
     of	memory pages in	the system.  On	current	SGI systems, each page can be
     4096 or 16384 bytes in length depending on	the return value of the
     getpagesize(2) system call.  In general, the larger page size is used on
     systems where uname(1) returns "IRIX64".  For the sysact, gfx, intr,
     bdev, fault, pswap, netudp, netip,	netif, tlb bars, the scale will	show
     the calculated number of events per second	which would fill the bar.  For
     the disk bar, the scale value will	show the total size of the disk	in
     bytes.  For the swp bar, the scale	value will show	the total amount of
     logical swap.  The	cpu and	wait bars cannot be displayed as numeric bars.
     If	the bdev, netudp, netip	or netif bars are displayed as numeric bars
     then additional information is available.

     The following options may be supported for	each of	the above bar types.
     If	the option is unsupported, it will be silently ignored by gr_osview.

	  strip		 - display as a	strip chart
	  numeric	 - display numeric values

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	  max	    - add a maximum value numeric meter
	  max(n)	 - add a maximum value meter with reset	interval n
	  tracksum  - add an average value numeric meter
	  tracksum(n)	 - add an average value	meter with interval n
	  noborder  - suppress bar border
	  interval(n)	 - set sample interval in base units
	  samples(n)	 - set number of samples in strip chart
	  attack(f)	 - set attack speed of bar
	  colors(c,...)	 - set bar colors to use
	  maxcolor(b,f)	 - set maximum value display colors
	  limcolor(b,f)	 - set scale limit value display colors
	  sumcolor(b,f)	 - set tracking	sum display colors
	  lockscale(x)	 - lock	the scale value
	  creepscale	 - autoscaling will only increase the scale
	  ticks(i,n)	      -	set strip chart	tick marks

     A strip chart is a	pictorial representation of a number of	samples	from
     the given bar, displayed vertically rather	than horizontally.  The	header
     displays the total	time covered by	the bar, which is the interval times
     the number	of samples.  A numeric chart simply shows the monitored	values
     as	absolute numeric values	rather then as pictorial values.

     The max enables max value mode, while the tracksum	option enables average
     value tracking mode.  If the second form of max, is used, the argument
     indicates a number	of intervals after which the max value will be reset
     to	the current value, if the current value	remains	below the displayed
     max value.	 In the	second form of tracksum, the argument specifies	the
     number of intervals over which to average the value.  This	allows,	for
     instance, a moving	bar to react very quickly for good visual effect while
     the average value is computed over	a longer interval for more accuracy.
     These values are displayed	at the end of a	bar, the max value above the
     tracksum value.

     If	the noborder option is given, then the bar border is suppressed.

     The interval option specifies the update interval of the bar, in base
     interval units.  The base interval	is set as a global option; see below.
     The argument to this option indicates the number of base interval units
     in	the interval for this bar.  For	instance, if the base interval is .2
     seconds, then an argument of "5" would indicate a 1 second	interval.

     The attack	option specifies the percentage	of the new value to be used in
     the rolling average calculation.  This averaging is what makes each bar
     appear to move smoothly; changing the attack value	can change the speed
     and appearance of a bar substantially.  The value can range from 0.0 to
     1.0; of course 0.0	indicates no movement of the bar ever, while 1.0 means
     instant change to the next	value.

     The colors	option modifies	the colors used	for the	bar.  Starting from
     the first parameter in a bar, the colors are modified until either	all
     parameters	are modified or	no more	colors are specified.  Each color
     specified in the argument is a color map index to use for that color.

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     The maxcolor, limcolor and	sumcolor options set the background and
     foreground	colors,	respectively, of that type of display for this bar.

     The lockscale option locks	the scale value	for the	bar to the given
     value, disabling autoscaling.  A locked scale is indicated	by the scale
     value being inverted (reverse video) in the display.  If the numeric
     argument to lockscale is suffixed by a 'k'	or 'K',	then the argument is
     multiplied	by 1024, a 'm' or 'M' suffix multiplies	the argument by	1 meg
     (1024 times 1024),	or a 'g' or 'G'	suffix multiplies the argument by 1
     gig (1024 times 1024 times	1024).	The creepscale option allows
     autoscaling, but the scale	can only increase.

     The ticks option enables tick marks for the given strip.  Tick marks are
     painted at	the top	of the bar, and	follow the strip as it moves.  The
     first form, ticks(n), paints a tick mark every n samples.	The second
     form, ticks(n,m), paints a	double-length tick mark	every (n*m) samples,
     or	every m	normal tick marks.

     Global options are	introduced by a	line with the special descriptor opt
     beginning the line.  The following	global options are accepted:

	  noborder  - suppress borders on all bars
	  arbsize	 - allow arbitrary window sizing
	  width(w)  - set number of bars horizontally
	  interval(t)	 - set base sample interval
	  colors(c,...)	 - modify default color	behavior
	  maxcolor(b,f)	 - set colors for maximum value	displays
	  limcolor(b,f)	 - set colors for limit	value displays
	  sumcolor(b,f)	 - set colors for sum value displays
	  backcolor(c)	 - set background color
	  frontcolor(c)	 - set foreground color
	  font(f)	 - set font to use
	  origin(x,y)	 - set window origin
	  winsize(x,y)	 - set window size
	  nodecorate	 - request an unframed window

     The noborder option suppresses borders on all bars, making	each bar
     display seem to "hang in space".  The arbsize option allows arbitrary
     sizing of the window; gr_osview may not always be able to properly	scale
     text or draw to match the window size if it is too	small.	The
     acceptability of a	too-small display is left to the user.	The width
     option sets the number of bars horizontally to use.  This value is	one by
     default, meaning that a long, vertical display is used.  The interval
     option sets the base sample interval.  The	argument is given in tenths of
     seconds.  The default base	interval is two	tenths of a second.

     The colors	option sets the	global color table, from which each bar
     selects its default colors, in the	same manner as for an individual bar.
     The limcolor, maxcolor and	sumcolor options set the background and
     foreground	colors,	respectively, of the limit value, maximum value	and
     tracking sum value	displays.  The backcolor and frontcolor	options	set
     the general background or foreground colors respectively.

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     The font option sets the font to be used for text.	 This is a font	name
     as	known to the IRIS GL Font Manager (libfm).  Default is
     "TimesBoldItalic".	 The origin option specifies the initial origin	of the
     window in screen coordinates.  The	winsize	option sets the	initial	window
     size in screen coordinates.

     Setting the nodecorate option specifies a gr_osview window	with no
     borders.  The default is to request a border around the window.


     cpu     The cpu bar statistically monitors	the distribution of CPU	cycles
	     between user programs, the	operating system, interrupt overhead,
	     graphics and idle time.  Computation-intensive loads will show
	     large user	times, while I/O or kernel service intensive loads
	     will show up as increased system and interrupt time.  If
	     intensive graphics	activity is under way, then the	time spent
	     waiting for the graphics hardware to context switch and the time
	     spent waiting for the graphics FIFO to empty will consume a
	     significant portion of the	processor.  gr_osview perturbs this
	     slightly, since it	causes graphics	context	switches to occur.

	     The data is collected by sampling the program counter at the
	     kernel clock frequency, which is 100HZ on the 4D series.  This
	     sampling is done automatically by the operating system; gr_osview
	     simply collects the data and displays it.

     wait    The wait bar monitors the percentage of time that the system is
	     idle due to waiting for outstanding I/O requests.	If an I/O
	     request was issued	on a processor,	then time that that processor
	     spends idle will be viewed	as wait	time.  This bar	is constructed
	     by	summing	all the	idle time for all processors in	the system and
	     displaying	the percentage of that time that an I/O	request	was
	     pending.  Since in	a multiprocessor system, there is no way to
	     differentiate which processors have I/O pending, if there is any
	     outstanding I/O request, and a processor goes idle, that
	     processor (along with all other idle processors) will accumulate
	     wait for I/O time rather than idle	time.

	     The different forms of waiting are:  IO refers to time spent
	     waiting for traffic related to file system	accesses (including
	     local, remote, and	mapped files, and normal file read and write).
	     Swap refers to time spent waiting for paging and swapping
	     operations	to and from any	swap devices.  Pio refers to time
	     spent waiting for physical	IO to complete;	for example, direct
	     DMA to user space.

	     The information is	collected in the same way as cpu time.

	     The meaning of the	wait bar changed in the	IRIX 6.5.13 release.
	     For details, see the -U section of	sar(1) man page.

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     rmem    This bar measures real memory usage.  kernel memory is memory
	     allocated to the operating	system and drivers.  fs	ctl is memory
	     used to store filesystem meta-data, that is, information such as
	     inodes, bitmaps, directories and the like that are	used to	manage
	     file data.	 fsdirty memory	is occupied by modified	file system
	     pages which have not yet been written to backing store.  fsclean
	     memory is occupied	by unmodified file system pages	which are
	     currently attached	to file	system buffer headers.	free is	memory
	     not currently in use.  user is memory currently allocated to
	     running processes.

	     Note that some of the pages marked	fsclean	or fsdirty may also be
	     allocated to running processes, but will not be accounted as user
	     Note also that some of the	free memory may	represent file system

	     Memory data is collected as absolute numbers rather than with
	     statistical means,	such as	for cpu	usage.	Most bars listed here
	     use this kind of accurate data, unless stated otherwise.

     rmemc   This bar is the same as the rmem bar, except that two fields are
	     used to describe memory not currently in use: freec is unused
	     memory which contains valid backing-store data and	which may be
	     reclaimed by a process or by the file system buffer cache;	freeu
	     is	unused memory which contains no	usable data.

     sysact  The system	activity bar measures a	few of the important system
	     activities, namely	total system calls, process context switches,
	     fork, exec	and iget operations.  Fork operations are initiated by
	     a process when it wishes to create	a new process.	Exec
	     operations	are initiated by a process to overlay itself with a
	     new process; this is how a	new program image is loaded and	run.
	     Finally, an iget operation	occurs whenever	the state of a file is
	     changed, for instance when	it is opened.  This is a crude measure
	     of	file system activity.  It is important to note that gr_osview
	     adds to the totals	shown in this bar, since it to must perform at
	     least some	system calls, and causes some process context

     gfx     This bar monitors graphics	activity on the	system.	 On most
	     systems, the graphics hardware can	interrupt the CPU when certain
	     conditions	occur; the first bar element measures the amount of
	     such activity, named intr.	 Every time the	processor switches to
	     a new process which is using a GL window on the graphics screen,
	     a graphics	context	switch occurs, labeled swch.  The X server and
	     GL	graphics programs will sometimes interact with privileged code
	     in	the kernel to obtain some service; this	is labeled ioctl after
	     the system	call used to perform the service.  When	a GL graphics
	     program wishes to be synchronized with buffer swapping done
	     during double buffering, it must wait for the next	vertical
	     retrace.  The number of times this	happens	is labeled swap.

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GR_OSVIEW(1)							  GR_OSVIEW(1)

	     Finally, the graphics pipeline is preceded	by a FIFO buffer to
	     smooth data movement into the pipeline.  When the FIFO fills up,
	     which it can with a fast processor, it interrupts the host, which
	     waits until the FIFO has emptied somewhat before allowing the
	     graphics process to continue drawing.  The	fiwt element describes
	     the number	of times this has happened.  The finowt	element
	     describes the number of times the interrupt routine found that
	     the FIFO was below	the low-water mark by the time it had saved
	     state and entered the interrupt handler.

     bdev    This bar (titled "BufAct")	monitors the input/output activity to
	     block devices.  Block devices are usually those which hold
	     filesystems, thus this bar	measures filesystem throughput.	 The
	     values are	given in blocks	per second, each block being 512 bytes
	     in	length.	 If displayed as a numeric bar,	then the logical read
	     and write rates as	well as	the actual read	and write rates, are
	     displayed,	as well	as the hit ratio of logical to actual reads
	     and writes	and the	rate at	which delayed writes are cancelled
	     (due, for example,	to truncation requests).

     fault   This bar monitors page fault activity.  These are events that
	     occur in managing the virtual address space of a process.	The
	     types of events are:

	  cpw	These are copy-on-write	events.	 This occurs when two or more
		processes are sharing a	page, and one of them attempts to
		modify the page.  To preserve the semantics of the UNIX	fork()
		primitive, a copy of the shared	page is	made for the process,
		and it is then allowed to modify that page at will.

	  mod	Modified faults	occur the first	time a process modifies	a
		page, which tells the operating	system that the	page is	dirty.
		For unmodified pages, the kernel can go	to the filesystem to
		get a copy of the page,	which saves the	overhead of keeping a
		copy on	swap during paging.  A copy of all modified pages must
		be maintained in memory	or on swap.

	  dmd	Demand-fill faults occur the first time	a process references a
		page with which	there is no associated backing-store, for
		instance when first touching the BSS segment in	a program.
		Since BSS is guaranteed	to be zero, it is not kept in the
		object file, but is allocated to the process on	demand by the

	  cache	During paging, the kernel keeps	a pool of pages	which have
		been selected as candidates for	stealing, and have backing
		store containing a copy	of the page.  This allows the kernel
		to respond to memory allocation	needs quickly, while allowing
		a process to get back a	page quickly if	it touches it again.
		This pool is called the	page cache.  Each cache	event
		indicates that a page fault occurred and the desired page was
		found in the page cache.

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GR_OSVIEW(1)							  GR_OSVIEW(1)

	  file	File events occur when a page fault happens and	a copy of the
		required page is fetched from the file system.

	  swap	This event indicates that a page fault occurred, and the
		desired	page was fetched from the disk swap area.

		This event indicates that a second-level fault has occurred.
		On the 4D series, translation lookaside	buffer (TLB) handling
		is performed entirely by software.  This is done by looking up
		the missing page entry in a page table,	and entering the
		virtual	to physical mapping into the TLB.  First-level faults
		are handled by extremely efficient low-level software.	The
		page tables themselves are virtually mapped, so	when the first
		level TLB handler attempts to load a page table	entry, it may
		fault because the page table isn't mapped.  This is a secondlevel
 fault, and must be repaired by high-level	kernel

	  pgref	This event indicates that a page fault occurred, but the page
		was actually still attached to the user	address	space.
		Reference faults are used by the operating system to keep
		accurate usage information when	paging is imminent.

     pswap   The page swapping activity	monitor	bar (titled "Pages Swapped")
	     measures access to	the swap areas,	for either swapin or swapout
	     activity.	During heavy paging, both swapin and swapout activity
	     could be significant.  On a system	with only a single swap	area
	     on	the same disk as the system and	user data, the swapping	rate
	     will be effectively limited by the	disk latency.  Much higher
	     swapping rates are	possible with several swap areas configured
	     across multiple disks and disk controllers.  This may be
	     necessary to achieve reasonable throughput	in the face of many
	     large jobs	competing for main memory.

	     The pswap bar is different	than the swp bar described elsewhere;
	     while pswap measures pages	swapped	in and out, the	swp bar
	     measures the usage	of logical swap	space.

     nettcp  This bar measures data throughput for the TCP network protocol,
	     in	kilobytes per second.  TCP, standing for Transmission Control
	     Protocol, is a reliable connection	oriented protocol used mainly
	     for stream	oriented operation, such as remote login or file copy.

     netudp  This bar measures data throughput for the UDP network protocol,
	     in	datagrams.  INdgram and	OUTdgram measure the datagram
	     throughput, while Dropped measures	the number of datagrams

	     UDP, the User Datagram Protocol, is a datagram service used where
	     low latency transactions are useful.  For instance, the Sun
	     Remote Procedure Call protocol uses UDP.  The NFS filesystem is

								       Page 12

GR_OSVIEW(1)							  GR_OSVIEW(1)

	     based on SunRPC, and therefore UDP	activity is a good indicator
	     of	NFS activity.

     netip   This bar measures packet throughput for the IP network protocol.
	     INpack and	OUTPack	measure	the number of packets, while Dropped
	     measures the number of packets dropped by the protocol.  In
	     numeric mode, additional fields are:Forward, giving the number of
	     packets forwarded on to another host and Delivered, giving	the
	     number of packets handed over to an upper-layer protocol.

	     IP, standing for Internet Protocol, is the	basic packet
	     management	layer of the network.  It sits between the network
	     interface driver and higher level protocols, providing error
	     control and routing facilities.

     netif   This bar monitors packets transmitted or received through the
	     various network interfaces	which may be present on	a machine.  If
	     displayed as a regular bar, the number of packets transferred in
	     or	out over the interface is shown	as INpack or OUTpack.  If
	     displayed as a numeric bar, then three additional fields may be
	     displayed:	 INerr and OUTerr measure the number of	packets
	     received in error or which	had errors during transmission,	while
	     coll measures the number of packet	collisions which occurred,
	     which only	happens	on CSMA/CD interfaces.

	     Each machine supporting networking	has a local loopback interface
	     called lo0.  This interface is not	usually	displayed unless
	     specifically called out, and it does not have the INerr, OUTerr
	     and coll fields.

     tlb     The tlb monitor bar measures translation lookaside	buffer (TLB)
	     activity on the system.  mpsync counts how	many times a request
	     is	made to	flush all TLB entries on all processors	and vmwrap
	     indicates how many	times mpsync is	caused by a depletion of clean
	     (with respect to the TLB) kernel virtual addresses.  flush	counts
	     how many times an entire TLB is flushed on	any one	processor and
	     idwrap shows how many times this happens because a	processor's
	     TLB ids have been depleted.  idget	monitors TLB id	allocation and
	     idpurge counts how	many times a tlb id is forcefully removed from
	     a process.	 Lastly, vapurge counts	individual tlb entries being

     intr    The interrupt monitor bar measures	the interrupt rate in the
	     system, and is broken out into VME	interrupts and others, which
	     are typically local interrupts to the CPU chip, such as serial
	     I/O ports.	 The operating system clock also interrupts the	CPU at
	     100HZ, thus at least this interrupt rate will always show as a
	     background	value.	A large	interrupt value, coupled with
	     extremely sluggish	performance, may indicate hardware problems,
	     such as continuously interrupting device.

								       Page 13

GR_OSVIEW(1)							  GR_OSVIEW(1)

     disk    The disk monitor bar comes	in two flavors,	an EFS version and an
	     "everything else" version.	 In the	EFS version, the first two
	     parameters	specify	the space taken	by the used and	free I-nodes
	     on	the volume.  The third is the space used by files, and any
	     remainder is free space.  In the non-EFS version, only the	space
	     used by files is shown.  The tracksum and max values are the
	     number of bytes used on the file system.

     swp     This bar monitors the amount of logical swap space	on the system.
	     If	swap space is added or deleted,	the bar	will update to the
	     appropriate values	automatically.	The total amount of logical
	     swap space	is computed as the sum of the amount of	physical
	     memory available to processes plus	the amount of physical swap
	     space plus	the amount of virtual swap space.  Physical swap space
	     is	further	divided	into free and used.  Logical swap is reserved
	     (used) by processes' private mappings (see	swap(1m) for more
	     information on private mappings).	The swp	bar combines these two
	     kinds of information (logical swap	makeup and reserved logical
	     swap) by splitting	each of	the four parts that make up the	sum
	     logical swap into two pieces - reserved and available.  The 8
	     components	of this	bar are:

	  mem	The amount of physical memory available	to processes that is
		not reserved.

	  mem-r	The amount of physical memory available	to processes that is

	  fswp	The amount of physical swap that is neither allocated nor

		The amount of physical swap that is not	allocated but is

	  uswp	The amount of physical swap that is allocated but not

		The amount of physical swap that is allocated and reserved.

	  vswp	The amount of virtual swap that	is not reserved.

		The amount of virtual swap that	is reserved.

	     The tracksum and max values are the number	of bytes of logical
	     swap reserved.

								       Page 14

GR_OSVIEW(1)							  GR_OSVIEW(1)

     The following description file gives a layout identical to	that used when
     the -a option of gr_osview	is given:

	  rmem max tracksum
	  sysact max

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]


SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     gr_top(1),	ps(1), top(1).

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     When using	a strip	chart display, and some	other window obscures part of
     the strip chart, the bar will gradually turn to black.  This is because
     an	in-framebuffer copy operation is used to make the strip	appear to
     move, and when part of the	window is obscured there is nothing to copy.
     It	is not clear that this bug will	ever be	fixed, because of the
     performance advantages of this style of update.

     If	the gr_osview window is	redrawn, perhaps due to	a repaint or resizing
     of	the window, the	next tick mark to be drawn on the strip	may be drawn
     at	an incorrect position.	Following marks	will have correct position and

     If	the arbsize option is used, a tiny window can be drawn which is
     unintelligible.  It is assumed that if the	arbsize	option is given, then
     a truly arbitrary size is desired.

     A global colors option will only affect bars declared after the colors
     declaration.  It seems that this is the proper behavior, since it allows
     groups of bars to be set to the same colors.

     If	a small	window is used,	and a width greater than one is	specified, the
     bar header	and variable names may continue	beyond the end of the bar.
     This does not effect the operation	of the program,	but may	cause some
     visual confusion.

     If	you use	csh(1),	gr_osview does not work	if your	.cshrc file on the
     remote host unconditionally executes interactive or output-generating
     commands.	Put these commands inside the following	conditional block:

	  if ($?prompt)	then


								       Page 15

GR_OSVIEW(1)							  GR_OSVIEW(1)

     so	they won't interfere with gr_osview and	other non-interactive,
     rcmd(3N)-based programs.

								       PPPPaaaaggggeeee 11116666
[ Back ]
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