XCALC(1) X Version 11 (Release 5) XCALC(1)
NAME [Toc] [Back]
xcalc  scientific calculator for X
SYNOPSIS [Toc] [Back]
xcalc [stipple] [rpn] [toolkitoption...]
DESCRIPTION [Toc] [Back]
xcalc is a scientific calculator desktop accessory that can
emulate a TI30 or an HP10C.
OPTIONS [Toc] [Back]
xcalc accepts all of the standard toolkit command line
options along with two additional options:
stipple
This option indicates that the background of the
calculator should be drawn using a stipple of the
foreground and background colors. On monochrome
displays improves the appearance.
rpn This option indicates that Reverse Polish Notation
should be used. In this mode the calculator will
look and behave like an HP10C. Without this flag,
it will emulate a TI30.
OPERATION [Toc] [Back]
Pointer Usage: Operations may be performed with pointer
button 1, or in some cases, with the keyboard. Many common
calculator operations have keyboard accelerators. To quit,
press pointer button 3 on the AC key of the TI calculator,
or the ON key of the HP calculator.
Calculator Key Usage (TI mode): The numbered keys, the +/
key, and the +, , *, /, and = keys all do exactly what you
would expect them to. It should be noted that the operators
obey the standard rules of precedence. Thus, entering
"3+4*5=" results in "23", not "35". The parentheses can be
used to override this. For example, "(1+2+3)*(4+5+6)="
results in "6*15=90".
The entire number in the calculator display can be selected,
in order to paste the result of a calculation into text.
The action procedures associated with each function are
given below. These are useful if you are interested in
defining a custom calculator. The action used for all digit
keys is digit(n), where n is the corresponding digit, 0..9.
1/x Replaces the number in the display with its
reciprocal. The corresponding action procedure is
reciprocal().
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XCALC(1) X Version 11 (Release 5) XCALC(1)
x^2 Squares the number in the display. The
corresponding action procedure is square().
SQRT Takes the square root of the number in the
display. The corresponding action procedure is
squareRoot().
CE/C When pressed once, clears the number in the
display without clearing the state of the machine.
Allows you to reenter a number if you make a
mistake. Pressing it twice clears the state,
also. The corresponding action procedure for TI
mode is clear().
AC Clears the display, the state, and the memory.
Pressing it with the third pointer button turns
off the calculator, in that it exits the program.
The action procedure to clear the state is off();
to quit, quit().
INV Invert function. See the individual function keys
for details. The corresponding action procedure
is inverse().
sin Computes the sine of the number in the display, as
interpreted by the current DRG mode (see DRG,
below). If inverted, it computes the arcsine.
The corresponding action procedure is sine().
cos Computes the cosine, or arccosine when inverted.
The corresponding action procedure is cosine().
tan Computes the tangent, or arctangent when inverted.
The corresponding action procedure is tangent().
DRG Changes the DRG mode, as indicated by 'DEG',
'RAD', or 'GRAD' at the bottom of of the
calculator ``liquid crystal'' display. When in
'DEG' mode, numbers in the display are taken as
being degrees. In 'RAD' mode, numbers are in
radians, and in 'GRAD' mode, numbers are in grads.
When inverted, the DRG key has a feature of
converting degrees to radians to grads and viceversa.
Example: put the calculator into 'DEG'
mode, and enter "45 INV DRG". The display should
now show something along the lines of ".785398",
which is 45 degrees converted to radians. The
corresponding action procedure is degree().
e The constant 'e'. (2.7182818...). The
corresponding action procedure is e().
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XCALC(1) X Version 11 (Release 5) XCALC(1)
EE Used for entering exponential numbers. For
example, to get "2.3E4" you'd enter "2 . 3 +/
EE 4 +/". The corresponding action procedure is
scientific().
log Calculates the log (base 10) of the number in the
display. When inverted, it raises "10.0" to the
number in the display. For example, entering "3
INV log" should result in "1000". The
corresponding action procedure is logarithm().
ln Calculates the log (base e) of the number in the
display. When inverted, it raises "e" to the
number in the display. For example, entering "e
ln" should result in "1". The corresponding
action procedure is naturalLog().
y^x Raises the number on the left to the power of the
number on the right. For example "2 y^x 3 ="
results in "8", which is 2^3. For a further
example, "(1+2+3) y^x (1+2) =" equals "6 y^x 3"
which equals "216". The corresponding action
procedure is power().
PI The constant 'pi'. (3.1415927....) The
corresponding action procedure is pi().
x! Computes the factorial of the number in the
display. The number in the display must be an
integer in the range 0500, though, depending on
your math library, it might overflow long before
that. The corresponding action procedure is
factorial().
( Left parenthesis. The corresponding action
procedure for TI calculators is leftParen().
) Right parenthesis. The corresponding action
procedure for TI calculators is rightParen().
/ Division. The corresponding action procedure is
divide().
* Multiplication. The corresponding action
procedure is multiply().
 Subtraction. The corresponding action procedure
is subtract().
+ Addition. The corresponding action procedure is
add().
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XCALC(1) X Version 11 (Release 5) XCALC(1)
= Perform calculation. The TIspecific action
procedure is equal().
STO Copies the number in the display to the memory
location. The corresponding action procedure is
store().
RCL Copies the number from the memory location to the
display. The corresponding action procedure is
recall().
SUM Adds the number in the display to the number in
the memory location. The corresponding action
procedure is sum().
EXC Swaps the number in the display with the number in
the memory location. The corresponding action
procedure for the TI calculator is exchange().
+/ Negate; change sign. The corresponding action
procedure is negate().
. Decimal point. The action procedure is decimal().
Calculator Key Usage (RPN mode): The number keys, CHS
(change sign), +, , *, /, and ENTR keys all do exactly what
you would expect them to do. Many of the remaining keys are
the same as in TI mode. The differences are detailed below.
The action procedure for the ENTR key is enter().
< This is a backspace key that can be used if you
make a mistake while entering a number. It will
erase digits from the display. (See BUGS).
Inverse backspace will clear the X register. The
corresponding action procedure is back().
ON Clears the display, the state, and the memory.
Pressing it with the third pointer button turns
off the calculator, in that it exits the program.
To clear state, the action procedure is off; to
quit, quit().
INV Inverts the meaning of the function keys. This
would be the f key on an HP calculator, but xcalc
does not display multiple legends on each key.
See the individual function keys for details.
10^x Raises "10.0" to the number in the top of the
stack. When inverted, it calculates the log (base
10) of the number in the display. The
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XCALC(1) X Version 11 (Release 5) XCALC(1)
corresponding action procedure is tenpower().
e^x Raises "e" to the number in the top of the stack.
When inverted, it calculates the log (base e) of
the number in the display. The action procedure
is epower().
STO Copies the number in the top of the stack to a
memory location. There are 10 memory locations.
The desired memory is specified by following this
key with a digit key.
RCL Pushes the number from the specified memory
location onto the stack.
SUM Adds the number on top of the stack to the number
in the specified memory location.
x:y Exchanges the numbers in the top two stack
positions, the X and Y registers. The
corresponding action procedure is XexchangeY().
R v Rolls the stack downward. When inverted, it rolls
the stack upward. The corresponding action
procedure is roll().
blank These keys were used for programming functions on
the HP10C. Their functionality has not been
duplicated in xcalc.
Finally, there are two additional action procedures:
bell(), which rings the bell; and selection(), which
performs a cut on the entire number in the calculator's
``liquid crystal'' display.
ACCELERATORS [Toc] [Back]
Accelerators are shortcuts for entering commands. xcalc
provides some sample keyboard accelerators; also users can
customize accelerators. The numeric keypad accelerators
provided by xcalc should be intuitively correct. The
accelerators defined by xcalc on the main keyboard are given
below:
TI Key HP Key Keyboard Accelerator TI Function HP Function
SQRT SQRT r squareRoot() squareRoot()
AC ON space clear() clear()
AC < Delete clear() back()
AC < Backspace clear() back()
AC < ControlH clear() back()
AC Clear clear()
AC ON q quit() quit()
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XCALC(1) X Version 11 (Release 5) XCALC(1)
AC ON ControlC quit() quit()
INV i i inverse() inverse()
sin s s sine() sine()
cos c c cosine() cosine()
tan t t tangent() tangent()
DRG DRG d degree() degree()
e e e()
ln ln l naturalLog() naturalLog()
y^x y^x ^ power() power()
PI PI p pi() pi()
x! x! ! factorial() factorial()
( ( leftParen()
) ) rightParen()
/ / / divide() divide()
* * * multiply() multiply()
   subtract() subtract()
+ + + add() add()
= = equal()
0..9 0..9 0..9 digit() digit()
. . . decimal() decimal()
+/ CHS n negate() negate()
x:y x XexchangeY()
ENTR Return enter()
ENTR Linefeed enter()
CUSTOMIZATION [Toc] [Back]
The application class name is XCalc.
xcalc has an enormous application defaults file which
specifies the position, label, and function of each key on
the calculator. It also gives translations to serve as
keyboard accelerators. Because these resources are not
specified in the source code, you can create a customized
calculator by writing a private application defaults file,
using the Athena Command and Form widget resources to
specify the size and position of buttons, the label for each
button, and the function of each button.
The foreground and background colors of each calculator key
can be individually specified. For the TI calculator, a
classical color resource specification might be:
XCalc.ti.Command.background: gray50
XCalc.ti.Command.foreground: white
For each of buttons 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, specify:
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XCALC(1) X Version 11 (Release 5) XCALC(1)
XCalc.ti.button20.background: black
XCalc.ti.button20.foreground: white
For each of buttons 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 37,
38, and 39:
XCalc.ti.button22.background: white
XCalc.ti.button22.foreground: black
WIDGET HIERARCHY [Toc] [Back]
In order to specify resources, it is useful to know the
hierarchy of the widgets which compose xcalc. In the
notation below, indentation indicates hierarchical
structure. The widget class name is given first, followed
by the widget instance name.
XCalc xcalc
Form ti or hp (the name depends on the mode)
Form bevel
Form screen
Label M
Toggle LCD
Label INV
Label DEG
Label RAD
Label GRAD
Label P
Command button1
Command button2
Command button3
and so on, ...
Command button38
Command button39
Command button40
APPLICATION RESOURCES [Toc] [Back]
rpn (Class Rpn)
Specifies that the rpn mode should be used. The
default is TI mode.
stipple (Class Stipple)
Indicates that the background should be stippled.
The default is ``on'' for monochrome displays, and
``off'' for color displays.
cursor (Class Cursor)
The name of the symbol used to represent the
pointer. The default is ``hand2''.
COLORS [Toc] [Back]
If you would like xcalc to use its ti colors, include the
following in the #ifdef COLOR section of the file you read
with xrdb:
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XCALC(1) X Version 11 (Release 5) XCALC(1)
*customization: color
This will cause xcalc to pick up the colors in the appdefaults
color customization file: /usr/lib/X11/appdefaults/XCalccolor.
SEE ALSO [Toc] [Back]
X(1), xrdb(1), the Athena Widget Set
BUGS [Toc] [Back]
HP mode: A bug report claims that the sequence of keys 5,
ENTER, < should clear the display, but it doesn't.
COPYRIGHT [Toc] [Back]
Copyright 1988, 1989, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
See X(1) for a full statement of rights and permissions.
AUTHORS [Toc] [Back]
John Bradley, University of Pennsylvania
Mark Rosenstein, MIT Project Athena
Donna Converse, MIT X Consortium
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