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 useradd(1M)                                                     useradd(1M)




 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      useradd - add a new user login to the system

 SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]
      useradd [-u uid [-o] ] [-g group] [-G group [, group...]] [-d dir]
           [-s shell] [-c comment] [-m [-k skel_dir]] [-f inactive]
           [-e expire] [-r update_homedir_ownership]  login

      useradd -D [-g group] [-b base_dir] [-f inactive] [-e expire]
           [-r update_homedir_ownership]

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      The useradd command creates a user login on the system by adding the
      appropriate entry to the /etc/passwd file and any security files,
      modifying the /etc/group file as necessary, creating a home directory,
      and copying the appropriate default files into the home directory
      depending on the command line options.  The new login remains locked
      until the passwd (see passwd(1)) command is invoked.

    New Behavior    [Toc]    [Back]
      login will not be added to the primary group entry in the /etc/group
      file, even if the primary group is specified in the command line.
      However, the  login is added to the corresponding supplemental group
      in /etc/group file.

    Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      The useradd command supports the following options:

           -u uid         Specifies the UID for the new user.  uid must be a
                          non-negative decimal integer less than MAXUID as
                          it is defined in the <param.h> header file.  uid
                          defaults to the next available unique number above
                          the maximum currently assigned number.  UIDs from
                          0-99 are reserved.

           -o             Allows the UID to be non-unique (i.e., a
                          duplicate).

           -g group       Specifies the integer group ID or character string
                          name of an existing group.  This defines the
                          primary group membership of the new login.  The
                          default for this option can be reset by invoking
                          useradd -D -g group.

           -G group       Specifies the integer group ID or character string
                          name of an existing group.  This defines the
                          supplemental group memberships of the new login.
                          Multiple groups may be specified as a comma
                          separated list.  Duplicates within group with the
                          -g and -G options are ignored.




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 useradd(1M)                                                     useradd(1M)




           -d dir         Specifies the home directory of the new login.  It
                          defaults to base_dir/login, where login is the new
                          login and base_dir is the base directory for new
                          login home directories.

                          To specify directory creation, you must use the -m
                          option.

           -s shell       Specifies the full pathname of the new login
                          shell.  The default is an empty field, which
                          causes the system to use /sbin/sh as the login
                          shell.  The value of shell must be a valid
                          executable file.

           -c comment     Specifies the comment field present in the
                          /etc/passwd entry for this login.  This can be any
                          text string.  A short description of the new login
                          is suggested for this field.

           -m             Creates the home directory for the new login if it
                          does not exist.  If the home directory exists, the
                          directory must have read and execute permission by
                          group, where group is the primary group of the new
                          login.  The -m option must be used to create a
                          home directory.

           -k skel_dir    Specifies the skeleton directory that contains
                          information that can be copied to the new login's
                          home directory.  This directory must exist.  The
                          system provides a skeleton directory, /etc/skel,
                          that can be used for this purpose.

           -f inactive    Specifies the maximum number of days of continuous
                          inactivity of the login before the login is
                          declared invalid.  Normal values are positive
                          integers, while a value of -1 defeats this status.

           -e expire      Specifies the date on which this login can no
                          longer be used.  After expire, no user will be
                          able to access this login.  This option is used to
                          create temporary logins.  expire, which is a date,
                          may be typed in any format, except a Julian date.
                          For example, a date may be entered in either of
                          the following formats:

                               July 13, 1993
                               7/13/93

                          A value of '''' defeats the expired date status.





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 useradd(1M)                                                     useradd(1M)




           -D             Manages the defaults for various options.  When
                          useradd is invoked with this option only, the
                          default values for group, base_dir, skel_dir,
                          shell, inactive, expire, and
                          update_homedir_ownership are displayed.  Invoking
                          useradd with this option and other allowed options
                          sets the default values for those options.

           -b base_dir    Specifies the default base directory for the
                          system.  If -d dir is not specified, base_dir is
                          concatenated with the new login name to define the
                          path of the new home directory.  base_dir must
                          exist.

           -r update_homedir_ownership
                          By default, useradd will not recursively update
                          the ownership of the home directory for the new
                          user if the directory exists and is not a shared
                          home directory.  This behavior of useradd can be
                          changed using -r [yes|no] option.  When used with
                          the -D option it will set the default behavior.
                          This option takes the argument yes or no:

                          yes   useradd will recursively update the
                                ownership of the home directory and the
                                files/directories below it to the new user,
                                if the directory already exists and is not a
                                shared home directory.

                          no    useradd will not update the ownership of the
                                home directory and the files/directories
                                below it.

      The useradd command may be used with the login argument, where login
      is the new login name, specified as a string of printable characters.
      It may not contain a colon (:) or a newline (\n).

      Unless enhanced security is installed, the -e and -f options are not
      supported and will return an error.

    Networking Features    [Toc]    [Back]
    NIS
      This command is aware of NIS user and group entries.  Only local users
      and groups may be modified with this command.  Attempts to modify an
      NIS user or group will result in an error.  NIS users and groups must
      be administered from the NIS server.  NIS users are checked when
      verifying uniqueness of the new UID or new user name, which may result
      in the error

           login x not unique




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 useradd(1M)                                                     useradd(1M)




      (return value 9), or the error

           UID # is not unique (when -o is not used)

      (return value 4) even though the user or UID is not present in the
      local /etc/passwd file.  The error

           Cannot modify /etc/group file, /etc/passwd was modified

      (return value 10) is returned if a group specified with either the -g
      option or the -G option is an NIS group (see group(4)).

    NFS    [Toc]    [Back]
      Errors may occur with the -m or -k options if the indicated directory
      is within an NFS mounted file system that does not allow root
      privileges across the NFS mount, and the directory or files within the
      directory do not have sufficient permissions.

 RETURN VALUE    [Toc]    [Back]
      useradd exits with one of the following values:

           0    Successful completion.

           2    Invalid command syntax.

           3    Invalid argument supplied to an option.

           4    uid is not unique (when -o is not used).

           6    The group specified with the -g option does not exist.

           9    login is not unique.

           10   Cannot modify the /etc/group file.  The login was added to
                the /etc/passwd file, but not to the /etc/group file.

           12   Unable to create the home directory (while using the -m
                option) or unable to complete the copy of skel_dir to the
                new home directory.

           13   Unable to open /etc/ptmp file or /etc/default file, or
                /etc/passwd file is non-existent.

           14   /etc/passwd, or /etc/ptmp, or /etc/default file busy.
                Another command may be modifying the /etc/passwd file.

           16   Cannot add the entry into the /etc/passwd file.

 EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]
      Add the user otto to the system with all of the default attributes.




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 useradd(1M)                                                     useradd(1M)




           useradd otto

      Add the user otto to the system with a UID of 222 and a primary group
      of staff.

           useradd -u 222 -g staff otto

      List the defaults for the primary group, base directory, inactivity
      timeout, and skeleton directory.

           useradd -D

      Change the default primary group to staff.

           useradd -D -g staff

 WARNINGS    [Toc]    [Back]
      A directory can be shared between the users belonging to the same
      group.  If the home directory is in the unshared mode and a new user
      is allocated to that directory then it will be put into the shared
      mode by setting the permissions of that directory to 775 (i.e.
      includes the write permissions to the group as well).  Also, the
      directory which will be shared should have read and execute
      permissions for the group. Otherwise, useradd will report an error.

      As many users may try to write the /etc/passwd file simultaneously, a
      passwd locking mechanism was deviced.  If this locking fails after
      subsequent retrying, useradd terminates.

      A group entry in the /etc/group file can have maximum of LINE_MAX
      bytes.  If a user is added to a group that has reached LINE_MAX limit,
      another entry of the same group is created to which the new user is
      added.  A warning message is also issued.

 FILES    [Toc]    [Back]
      /etc/shadow         Shadow Password file
      /etc/passwd         System Password file
      /etc/skel           Skeleton directory
      /etc/group          System group file
      /etc/ptmp           Lock file used when updating password file

 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      passwd(1), users(1), groupadd(1M), groupdel(1M), groupmod(1M),
      logins(1M), userdel(1M), usermod(1M), pwconv(1M), group(4), shadow(4).

 STANDARDS CONFORMANCE    [Toc]    [Back]
      useradd: SVID3


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