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 pppd(1)                                                             pppd(1)




 NAME    [Toc]    [Back]
      pppd - PPP daemon

 SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]
      pppd [options...]

 DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]
      pppd is a daemon process used in UNIX systems to manage connections to
      other hosts using PPP (Point to Point Protocol) or SLIP (Serial Line
      Internet Protocol).  It uses the UNIX host's native serial ports.  It
      communicates with the UNIX kernel's own TCP/IP implementation via the
      HP IP tunnel driver.

      The functionality supplied by this daemon supersedes that provided by
      ppl(1) in HP-UX prior to Release 10.30.  ppl only supported the SLIP
      and CSLIP (Compressed Header SLIP) protocols.

    Daemon Management Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      auto                     Start in `autocall' mode and detach from the
                               controlling terminal to run as a daemon.
                               Initiate a connection in response to a packet
                               specified in the `bringup' category in
                               filter-file.  Requires the remote address.

      up                       When used with auto, bring the link up
                               immediately rather than waiting for traffic.
                               If the link goes down, attempt to restart it
                               (after the call retry delay timer expires)
                               without waiting for an outbound packet.

      dedicated                Treat the connection as a dedicated line
                               rather than a demand-dial connection.  This
                               option tells pppd to never give up on the
                               connection; that is, if the peer tries to
                               shut down the link, go ahead and do so, but
                               then immediately try to reestablish the
                               connection.  Similarly, when first trying to
                               connect, pppd will not give up after sending
                               a fixed number of Configure-Request messages.
                               Hangup events (LQM failures, loss of Carrier
                               Detect) will still cause the device to be
                               closed, just as with dial-up connections, and
                               the Systems file will then be checked for
                               alternate entries.  If none are available,
                               the connection will be reestablished after
                               the call retry delay timer expires.  Use a
                               short call retry delay timer on dedicated
                               circuits; something like Any;5-30 should work
                               well.  Implies up.





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 pppd(1)                                                             pppd(1)




      altdelay delay           Set the delay of delay seconds between
                               dialing each alternate numbers in the Systems
                               file for the same destination.  The default
                               value is 1 second.

      nodetach                 Don't detach from the controlling terminal in
                               `autocall' mode.  When used with log -, this
                               can be useful for watching the progress of
                               the PPP session.

      log log-file             Append logging messages to log-file (default:
                               /var/adm/pppd.log).

      acct acct-file           Append session accounting messages to acctfile.
  If acct-file is the same as log-file,
                               the session accounting messages will be
                               interleaved with other logging information.

      filter filter-file       Look in filter-file for packet filtering and
                               link management information (default:
                               /etc/ppp/Filter).

      debug debug-level        Set the log file verbosity to the following
                               debug-level and each debugging verbosity
                               level also provides the information of all
                               the lower-numbered levels.

                               0   Daemon start messages

                               1   Link status messages, calling attempts
                                   (the default)

                               2   Chat script processing, input framing
                                   errors

                               3   LCP, IPCP, PAP and CHAP negotiation

                               4   LQM status summaries

                               5   IP interface changes

                               6   IP message summaries

                               7   Full LQM reports

                               8   All PPP messages (without framing)

                               9   Characters read or written

                               10  Procedure call messages




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 pppd(1)                                                             pppd(1)




                               11  Internal timers

      exec exec-cmd            Run `exec-cmd up addr args' when the link
                               comes up, and `exec-cmd down addr args' when
                               it goes down.  Addr is the IP address of the
                               peer, and args is the list of arguments given
                               to pppd.

      nonice                   Run at a normal user process priority, rather
                               than using the nice() library routine to
                               elevate pppd scheduling priority to -10.

    Communications Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      asyncmap async-map       Set the desired Async Control Character Map
                               to async-map, expressed in C-style
                               hexadecimal notation (default 0xA0000).

      noasyncmap               Disable LCP Async Control Character Map
                               negotiation.

      escape odd-character     In addition to those characters specified in
                               the PPP Async Control Character Map (which
                               can include only 0x00 through 0x1F), also
                               apply the escaping algorithm when
                               transmitting odd-character.  The value of
                               odd-character must be between 0x00 and 0xFF,
                               and cannot be any of 0x5E, 0x7D or 0x7E.

                               Odd-character can be specified as a decimal
                               number, in C-style hexadecimal notation, or
                               as an ASCII character with optional `^'
                               control-character notation.  For example, the
                               XON character could be specified as 17, 0x11,
                               or ^Q.

                               If a character specified with the escape
                               argument, when transformed into its escaped
                               form, would be the same as a character
                               contained in the peer's negotiated Async
                               Control Character Map, a warning will be
                               printed in the log file and the character
                               specified on the command line will not be
                               escaped.

                               If a character specified with the escape
                               argument, when transformed into its escaped
                               form, would be the same as a character
                               specified in another escape argument on the
                               daemon's command line, pppd will print an
                               error message and exit.




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 pppd(1)                                                             pppd(1)




      device                   Communicate over the named device (default
                               /dev/tty).

      comm-speed               Set communications rate to comm-speed bits
                               per second.

      ignore-cd                Ignore the state of the CD (Carrier Detect,
                               also called DCD, Data Carrier Detect) signal.
                               This is useful for systems that don't support
                               CD but want to run PPP over a dedicated line.

      xonxoff                  Set the line to use in-band (`software') flow
                               control, using the characters DC3 (^S, XOFF,
                               ASCII 0x13) to stop the flow and DC1 (^Q,
                               XON, ASCII 0x11) to resume.  (The default is
                               to use no flow control.) For an outbound
                               connection, this may be specified either in
                               Devices or on the pppd command line.

      telnet                   When used on an answering pppd command line,
                               negotiate the telnet binary option and
                               understand telnet escape processing.  Not for
                               use with device or auto.

    Link Management Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      nooptions                Disable all LCP and IPCP options.

      noaccomp                 Disable HDLC Address and Control Field
                               compression.

      noprotcomp               Disable LCP Protocol Field Compression.

      slip                     Use RFC 1055 SLIP packet framing rather than
                               PPP packet framing.  Disables all option
                               negotiation, and implies noasyncmap,
                               noipaddress, vjslots 16, novjcid, nomagic,
                               nomru, and mru 1006.  Implies vjcomp if peer
                               sends a header-compressed TCP packet.

      extra-slip-end           When running in SLIP mode, prepend a SLIP
                               packet framing character (0xC0) to each frame
                               before transmission, even if this frame
                               immediately follows the previous frame.  By
                               default, pppd transmits only one framing
                               character between adjacent SLIP frames.

      extra-ppp-flag           When running in PPP mode, prepend a PPP
                               packet framing character (0x7E) to each frame
                               before transmission, even if this frame
                               immediately follows the previous frame.  By
                               default, pppd transmits only one framing



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 pppd(1)                                                             pppd(1)




                               character between adjacent PPP frames.

      nomagic                  Disable LCP Magic Number negotiation.

      mru mru-size             Set LCP Maximum Receive Unit value to mrusize
 for negotiation.  The default is 1500
                               for PPP and 1006 for SLIP.

      nomru                    Disable LCP Maximum Receive Unit negotiation,
                               and use 1500 for our interface.

      active                   Begin LCP parameter negotiation immediately
                               (the default).

      passive                  Do not send our first LCP packet until we
                               receive an LCP packet from the peer.

      timeout restart-time     Set the LCP, IPCP, CCP, PAP, and CHAP option
                               negotiation restart timers to restart-time
                               (default 3 seconds).

      lqrinterval time         Send Link-Quality-Reports or Echo-Requests
                               every time seconds (default 10 seconds).  If
                               the peer responds with a Protocol-Reject,
                               send LCP Echo-Requests every time seconds
                               instead, and use the received LCP EchoReplies
 for link status policy decisions.

      lqthreshold min/per      Set a minimum standard for link quality by
                               considering the connection to have failed if
                               fewer than min out of the last per LQRs we
                               sent have been responded to by the peer
                               (default 1/5).

      echolqm                  Use LCP Echo-Requests rather than standard
                               Link-Quality-Report messages for link quality
                               assessment and policy decisions.  The peer
                               can override this if it actively tries to
                               configure Link Quality Monitoring unless the
                               nolqm parameter is also specified.

      nolqm                    Don't send or recognize Link-Quality-Report
                               messages.  If echolqm is also specified,
                               Echo-Request messages will be used to detect
                               link failures.

      idle idle-time[/session-idle-time]
                               Shut down the link when idle-time seconds
                               pass without receiving or transmitting a
                               packet specified in the `keepup' category in
                               the filter file (default is to never consider



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 pppd(1)                                                             pppd(1)




                               the link idle).

                               If session-idle-time is specified and any TCP
                               sessions are open, shut down the link when
                               session-idle-time seconds pass without
                               receiving or transmitting a packet.

      max-configure tries      Set the PPP Max-Configure counter (the
                               maximum number of Configure-Requests sent
                               without a response) to tries.

      max-terminate tries      Set the PPP Max-Terminate counter (the
                               maximum number of Terminate-Requests sent
                               without a response) to tries.

      max-failure tries        Set the PPP Max-Failure counter (the maximum
                               number of Configure-Naks sent without a
                               positive response) to tries.

    IP Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      local:remote             The address of this machine, followed by the
                               expected address for the remote machine.  Can
                               be specified either as symbolic names or as
                               literal IP addresses, if their addresses
                               cannot be discovered locally without using
                               the PPP link.

                               Both addresses are optional, but a colon by
                               itself is not valid, and the remote address
                               is required when running as a daemon in
                               `autocall' mode.  If only local: is specified
                               when receiving an incoming call, the remote
                               address will be discovered during IPCP IPAddress
 negotiations.

                               If either address is followed by a tilde
                               character (`~'), or if the tilde appears
                               alone, pppd accepts the IP address given by
                               the peer during IPCP negotiations, whether
                               for the local end or the peer's end of the
                               link. (not available in SLIP mode)

                               Because SLIP cannot perform option
                               negotiations, including IPCP, both addresses
                               should normally be specified, and the tilde
                               option is unavailable.  To obtain a similar
                               "feature", the peer must provide the IP
                               address textually during the login process,
                               and a new value must be obtained using the
                               Systems file `\A' chat script feature (see
                               ppp.Systems(4)).



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 pppd(1)                                                             pppd(1)




      netmask subnet-mask      Set the subnet mask of the interface to
                               subnet-mask, expressed either in C-style
                               hexadecimal (e.g. 0xffffff00) or in decimal
                               dotted-quad notation (e.g.  255.255.255.0).
                               The default subnet mask will be appropriate
                               for the network (class A, B, or C), assuming
                               no subnetting.

      need-ip-address          Ask the peer to assign us an IP address.

      noipaddress              Disable IPCP IP-Address negotiation.

      vjcomp                   Enable RFC 1144 `VJ' Van Jacobson TCP header
                               compression negotiation with 16 slots and
                               slot ID compression (this is the default with
                               PPP framing).  `VJ' compression is enabled by
                               default for async connections, and disabled
                               by default for sync connections.

      novjcomp                 Disable RFC 1144 `VJ' Van Jacobson TCP header
                               compression (this is the default with SLIP
                               framing, until the peer sends a headercompressed
 TCP packet).

      vjslots vj-slots         Set the number of VJ compression slots (min
                               3, max 256, default 16).

      novjcid                  Disable VJ compression slot ID compression
                               (enabled by default).

      rfc1172-vj               Backwards compatibility with older PPP
                               implementations (4-byte VJ configuration
                               option), but with the correct option
                               negotiation value of 0x002d.

      rfc1172-typo-vj          Backwards compatibility with older PPP
                               implementations (4-byte VJ configuration
                               option) that conform to the typographical
                               error in RFC 1172 section 5.2 (CompressionType
 value 0x0037).

      rfc1172-addresses        Backwards compatibility with older PPP
                               implementations that conform to RFC 1172
                               section 5.1 (IP-Addresses, IPCP configuration
                               option 1) and not with the newer RFC 1332
                               (IP-Address, IPCP configuration option 3),
                               but that respond with something besides a
                               Configure-Reject when they receive an IPCP
                               Configure-Request containing an option 3.





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 pppd(1)                                                             pppd(1)




    Authentication Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      requireauth              Require either PAP or CHAP authentication.

      requirechap              Require CHAP authentication as described in
                               RFC 1334.

      requiremschap            Require MS-CHAP authentication.

      requirepap               Require PAP authentication.

      rechap interval          Demand that the peer re-authenticate itself
                               (using CHAP) every interval seconds.  If the
                               peer fails the new challenge, the link is
                               terminated.

      name identifier          Provide the identifier used during PAP or
                               CHAP negotiation.  This option is necessary
                               if the PPP peer requires authentication.  The
                               default value is the value returned by the
                               gethostname(2) system call or the hostname(1)
                               command.

    MicroSoft Compatibility Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      ms-dns address           Set the MS DNS address to provide to the
                               peer. First occurrence of this option on the
                               command line sets the primary address; the
                               second occurrence sets the secondary address.

      ms-nbns address          Set the MS NBNS address to provide to the
                               peer. First occurrence of this option on the
                               command line sets the primary address; the
                               second occurrence sets the secondary address.

    Encryption Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      Encryption is not currently available in software exported from the
      USA.  However, customer may contact sales@progressive-systems.com to
      obtain encryption functionality.

    Link Compression Options    [Toc]    [Back]
      compress                 Offer all supported link compression types
                               (currently only Predictor-1) when
                               negotiating.  The default is to propose and
                               accept no link compression type.

      compress-pred1           Accept any supported compression type, but
                               prefer Predictor type 1 compression.

      nopred1                  Never use Predictor-1 compression.

 LOG FILE    [Toc]    [Back]
      Status information is recorded in the log file (/var/adm/pppd.log by



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 pppd(1)                                                             pppd(1)




      default) by each copy of pppd running on a single machine.  Each line
      in the file consists of a message preceded by the date, the time, and
      the process ID number of the daemon writing the message.  The quantity
      and verbosity of messages are controlled with the debug option and
      with the log filter (see ppp.Filter(4)).

      Each packet that brings up the link (at debug level 1 or more), each
      packet that matches the log filter (at any debug level), or any packet
      when the debug level is 7 or more writes a one-line description of the
      packet to the log file.  The first item of the message is the protocol
      (tcp, udp, icmp, or a numeric protocol value ).  For ICMP packets, the
      keyword icmp is followed by the ICMP message type and sub code,
      separated by slashes.  After the protocol comes an IP address and
      optionally a TCP or UDP port number, followed by an arrow indicating
      whether the packet was sent (->) or received (<-), followed by another
      address and port number, followed by the length of the packet in bytes
      before VJ TCP header compression, followed by zero or more keywords.
      For transmitted packets, the first IP address is the source address,
      while for received packets, the first IP address is the destination
      address.  Well known TCP and UDP port numbers will be replaced by the
      name returned by the getservbyport() library function.  The keywords
      and their meanings are:

      frag        The packet is a middle or later part of a fragmented IP
                  frame.

      syn         The packet has the TCP SYN bit set.

      fin         The packet has the TCP FIN bit set.

      bringup     The transmitted packet matches the bringup filter and is
                  bringing up the link.

      !keepup     the packet has been rejected by the keepup filter.

      !pass       The packet has been rejected by the pass filter.

      dial failed The packet was dropped because pppd is waiting for the
                  call retry timer to expire.

      (c)         The received packet is VJ TCP header compressed.

      (u)         The received packet is VJ TCP header uncompressed.

      For example, the following log file line

           9/6-14:06:26-83 tcp 63.1.6.3/1050 -> 8.1.1.9/smtp 44 syn

      indicates that at 2:06:26 PM on September 6, process ID 83 sent a 44-
      byte TCP packet with the SYN bit set from port 1050 on 63.1.6.3 to the
      SMTP port on 8.1.1.9.



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 pppd(1)                                                             pppd(1)




 SIGNALS    [Toc]    [Back]
      Upon reception of the following signals, pppd closes and reopens the
      log file, re-reads the filter and key files, then takes the indicated
      actions:

      SIGKILL        Don't use this.  Never, never use this.  Since pppd
                     won't be able to shut down gracefully, it will leave
                     your serial interfaces (whether /dev/tty) and your IP
                     tunnel driver in some unknown state.  Use SIGTERM
                     instead, so pppd will shut down cleanly, and leave the
                     system in a well-defined state.

      SIGINT         Disconnect gracefully from an active session.  If in
                     `autocall' mode, reset the call retry delay timer and
                     call retry backoff interval.  If up was specified,
                     attempt to re-establish the link.  Exit if not in
                     `autocall' mode.

      SIGHUP         Disconnect abruptly from an active session.  If up was
                     specified, attempt to re-establish the link.  Exit if
                     not in `autocall' mode.

      SIGTERM        Disconnect gracefully from an active session, clean up
                     the state of any serial and IP interfaces that are
                     open, then exit.

      SIGUSR1        Increment the verbosity level for debugging information
                     written to the log file.

      SIGUSR2        Reset the debugging verbosity level to the base value
                     (1 unless debug 0 was supplied on the command line).

      SIGALRM        Take no action except to re-read the filter and key
                     files.

 EXAMPLES    [Toc]    [Back]
      To run a pair of daemons on `oursystem', one maintaining a constant
      link with `backbonesystem' and the other prepared to initiate outbound
      calls to a neighboring machine named `theirsystem', add the following
      to /sbin/rc2.d/S522ppp:

           if [ -f /etc/ppp/Autostart ]; then
                /etc/ppp/Autostart
           fi

      Then make /etc/ppp/Autostart look like this:

           #!/bin/sh

           PATH=/usr/etc:/bin:/usr/bin




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 pppd(1)                                                             pppd(1)




           if [ -f /var/adm/pppd.log ]; then
                   mv /var/adm/pppd.log /var/adm/OLDpppd.log
           fi

           echo -n "Starting PPP daemons:"        >/dev/console

           pppd oursystem:backbonesystem auto up
                   (echo -n ' backbonesystem')    >/dev/console
           pppd oursystem:theirsystem auto idle 120
                   (echo -n ' theirsystem')       >/dev/console

           echo '.'                               >/dev/console

      To allow a PPP implementation running on `theirsystem' to dial into
      `oursystem', insert the following into /etc/passwd on `oursystem':

           Pthem:?:105:20:Their PPP:/etc/ppp:/etc/ppp/Login

      where group 20 is the gid of the ppp group which owns /usr/etc/pppd,
      and /etc/ppp/Login is an executable shell script that looks something
      like

           #!/bin/sh
           PATH=/usr/bin:/usr/etc:/bin
           mesg n
           stty -tostop
           exec pppd `hostname`:

 RECOMMENDATIONS    [Toc]    [Back]
      Use host names when running /etc/ppp/Autostart from
      /sbin/rc2.d/S522ppp only if they are known locally.  If a PPP
      connection to a DNS server would be required to resolve a host name,
      use its literal IP address instead.

 EXTERNAL INFLUENCES    [Toc]    [Back]
    Environment Variables
      The environment variable PPPHOME, if present, specifies the directory
      in which pppd looks for its configuration files (Filter and Auth for
      all connections, along with Systems, Devices, and Dialers if the
      connection is `outbound').  You can specify PPPHOME either in the
      Autostart script or in an incoming connection's Login script.  If
      PPPHOME is not present, pppd will expect to find its configuration
      files in /etc/ppp/*.

 SECURITY CONCERNS    [Toc]    [Back]
      pppd should be mode 4750, owned by root, and executable only by the
      members of the group containing all the incoming PPP login `users'.

 AUTHOR    [Toc]    [Back]
      pppd was developed by the Progressive Systems.




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 pppd(1)                                                             pppd(1)




 SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]
      ppp.Auth(4), ppp.Devices(4), ppp.Dialers(4), ppp.Filter(4),
      ppp.Keys(4), ppp.Systems(4), RFC 1548, RFC 1549, RFC 1332, RFC 1333,
      RFC 1334, RFC 1172, RFC 1144, RFC 1055,
      ds.internic.net:/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-pppext-compression-04.txt.

 STANDARDS CONFORMANCE    [Toc]    [Back]
      HP PPP implements the IETF Proposed Standard Point-to-Point Protocol
      and many of its options and extensions, in conformance with RFCs 1548,
      1549, 1332, 1333, 1334, and 1144.  It can be configured to be
      conformant with earlier specifications of the PPP protocol, as
      described in RFCs 1134, 1171, and 1172.  It implements the nonstandard
      SLIP protocol as described in RFCs 1055 and 1144.


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