syslogd -- log systems messages
syslogd [-46Acdknosuv] [-a allowed_peer] [-b bind_address]
[-f config_file] [-l path] [-m mark_interval] [-P pid_file]
The syslogd utility reads and logs messages to the system console, log
files, other machines and/or users as specified by its configuration
The options are as follows:
-4 Force syslogd to use IPv4 addresses only.
-6 Force syslogd to use IPv6 addresses only.
-A Ordinarily, syslogd tries to send the message to only one address
even if the host has more than one A or AAAA record. If this
option is specified, syslogd tries to send the message to all
Allow allowed_peer to log to this syslogd using UDP datagrams.
Multiple -a options may be specified.
Allowed_peer can be any of the following:
ipaddr/masklen[:service] Accept datagrams from ipaddr (in the
usual dotted quad notation) with
masklen bits being taken into account
when doing the address comparison.
ipaddr can be also IPv6 address by
enclosing the address with `[' and
`]'. If specified, service is the
name or number of an UDP service (see
services(5)) the source packet must
belong to. A service of `*' allows
packets being sent from any UDP port.
The default service is `syslog'. If
ipaddr is IPv4 address, a missing
masklen will be substituted by the
historic class A or class B netmasks
if ipaddr belongs into the address
range of class A or B, respectively,
or by 24 otherwise. If ipaddr is
IPv6 address, a missing masklen will
be substituted by 128.
domainname[:service] Accept datagrams where the reverse
address lookup yields domainname for
the sender address. The meaning of
service is as explained above.
*domainname[:service] Same as before, except that any
source host whose name ends in
domainname will get permission.
The -a options are ignored if the -s option is also specified.
Specify one specific IP address or hostname to bind to. If a
hostname is specified, the IPv4 or IPv6 address which corresponds
to it is used.
-c Disable the compression of repeated instances of the same line
into a single line of the form ``last message repeated N times''
when the output is a pipe to another program. If specified
twice, disable this compression in all cases.
-d Put syslogd into debugging mode. This is probably only of use to
developers working on syslogd.
-f Specify the pathname of an alternate configuration file; the
default is /etc/syslog.conf.
-k Disable the translation of messages received with facility
``kern'' to facility ``user''. Usually the ``kern'' facility is
reserved for messages read directly from /dev/klog.
-m Select the number of minutes between ``mark'' messages; the
default is 20 minutes.
-n Disable dns query for every request.
-o Prefix kernel messages with the full kernel boot file as determined
by getbootfile(3). Without this, the kernel message prefix
is always ``kernel:''.
-p Specify the pathname of an alternate log socket to be used
instead; the default is /var/run/log.
-P Specify an alternative file in which to store the process ID.
The default is /var/run/syslog.pid.
-l Specify a location where syslogd should place an additional log
socket. Up to 19 additional logging sockets can be specified.
The primary use for this is to place additional log sockets in
/var/run/log of various chroot filespaces.
-s Operate in secure mode. Do not log messages from remote
machines. If specified twice, no network socket will be opened
at all, which also disables logging to remote machines.
-u Unique priority logging. Only log messages at the specified priority.
Without this option, messages at the stated priority or
higher are logged. This option changes the default comparison
from ``=>'' to ``=''.
-v Verbose logging. If specified once, the numeric facility and
priority are logged with each locally-written message. If specified
more than once, the names of the facility and priority are
logged with each locally-written message.
The syslogd utility reads its configuration file when it starts up and
whenever it receives a hangup signal. For information on the format of
the configuration file, see syslog.conf(5).
The syslogd utility reads messages from the UNIX domain socket
/var/run/log, from an Internet domain socket specified in /etc/services,
and from the special device /dev/klog (to read kernel messages).
The syslogd utility creates its process ID file, by default
/var/run/syslog.pid, and stores its process ID there. This can be used
to kill or reconfigure syslogd.
The message sent to syslogd should consist of a single line. The message
can contain a priority code, which should be a preceding decimal number
in angle braces, for example, `<5>'. This priority code should map into
the priorities defined in the include file <sys/syslog.h>.
For security reasons, syslogd will not append to log files that do not
exist; therefore, they must be created manually before running syslogd.
/etc/syslog.conf configuration file
/var/run/syslog.pid default process ID file
/var/run/log name of the UNIX domain datagram log socket
/dev/klog kernel log device
logger(1), syslog(3), services(5), syslog.conf(5)
The syslogd utility appeared in 4.3BSD.
The -a, -s, -u, and -v options are FreeBSD 2.2 extensions.
The ability to log messages received in UDP packets is equivalent to an
unauthenticated remote disk-filling service, and should probably be disabled
by default. Some sort of inter-syslogd authentication mechanism
ought to be worked out. To prevent the worst abuse, use of the -a option
is therefore highly recommended.
The -a matching algorithm doesn't pretend to be very efficient; use of
numeric IP addresses is faster than domain name comparison. Since the
allowed peer list is being walked linearly, peer groups where frequent
messages are being anticipated from should be put early into the -a list.
The log socket was moved from /dev to ease the use of a read-only root
file system. This may confuse some old binaries so that a symbolic link
might be used for a transitional period.
FreeBSD 5.2.1 November 24, 2001 FreeBSD 5.2.1 [ Back ]