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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     groff_mdoc -- reference for groff's mdoc implementation

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     groff -mdoc file ...

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     A complete reference for writing UNIX manual pages with the -mdoc macro
     package; a content-based and domain-based formatting package for GNU
     troff(1).	Its predecessor, the -man(7) package, addressed page layout
     leaving the manipulation of fonts and other typesetting details to the
     individual author.  In -mdoc, page layout macros make up the page
     structure domain which consists of macros for titles, section headers,
     displays and lists - essentially items which affect the physical position
     of text on a formatted page.  In addition to the page structure domain,
     there are two more domains, the manual domain and the general text
     domain.  The general text domain is defined as macros which perform tasks
     such as quoting or emphasizing pieces of text.  The manual domain is
     defined as macros that are a subset of the day to day informal language
     used to describe commands, routines and related UNIX files.  Macros in
     the manual domain handle command names, command line arguments and
     options, function names, function parameters, pathnames, variables, cross
     references to other manual pages, and so on.  These domain items have
     value for both the author and the future user of the manual page.	Hopefully,
 the consistency gained across the manual set will provide easier
     translation to future documentation tools.

     Throughout the UNIX manual pages, a manual entry is simply referred to as
     a man page, regardless of actual length and without sexist intention.

GETTING STARTED    [Toc]    [Back]

     The material presented in the remainder of this document is outlined as

		Macro Usage
		Passing Space Characters in an Argument
		Trailing Blank Space Characters
		Escaping Special Characters
		Other Possible Pitfalls




		What's in a Name...
		General Syntax

		Author Name
		Configuration Declarations (Section Four Only)
		Command Modifiers
		Defined Variables
		Environment Variables
		Function Declarations
		Function Types
		Functions (Library Routines)
		Function Arguments
		Return Values
		Exit Status
		Interactive Commands
		Library Names
		Variable Types
		Manual Page Cross References

		AT&T Macro
		BSD Macro
		NetBSD Macro
		FreeBSD Macro
		OpenBSD Macro
		BSD/OS Macro
		UNIX Macro
		Emphasis Macro
		Font Mode
		Enclosure and Quoting Macros
		No-Op or Normal Text Macro
		No-Space Macro
		Section Cross References
		Mathematical Symbols
		References and Citations
		Trade Names (or Acronyms and Type Names)
		Extended Arguments

		Section Headers
		Subsection Headers
		Paragraphs and Line Spacing
		Examples and Displays
		Lists and Columns





	   13.	FILES

	   14.	SEE ALSO

	   15.	BUGS


     The -mdoc package attempts to simplify the process of writing a man page.
     Theoretically, one should not have to learn the tricky details of GNU
     troff(1) to use -mdoc; however, there are a few limitations which are
     unavoidable and best gotten out of the way.  And, too, be forewarned,
     this package is not fast.

   Macro Usage    [Toc]    [Back]
     As in GNU troff(1), a macro is called by placing a `.' (dot character) at
     the beginning of a line followed by the two-character (or three-character)
 name for the macro.  There can be space or tab characters between
     the dot and the macro name.  Arguments may follow the macro separated by
     spaces (but no tabs).  It is the dot character at the beginning of the
     line which causes GNU troff(1) to interpret the next two (or more) characters
 as a macro name.  A single starting dot followed by nothing is
     ignored.  To place a `.' (dot character) at the beginning of an input
     line in some context other than a macro invocation, precede the `.' (dot)
     with the `\&' escape sequence which translates literally to a zero-width
     space, and is never displayed in the output.

     In general, GNU troff(1) macros accept an unlimited number of arguments
     (contrary to other versions of troff which can't handle more than nine
     arguments).  In limited cases, arguments may be continued or extended on
     the next line (See Extended Arguments below).  Almost all macros handle
     quoted arguments (see Passing Space Characters in an Argument below).

     Most of the -mdoc general text domain and manual domain macros are special
 in that their argument lists are parsed for callable macro names.
     This means an argument on the argument list which matches a general text
     or manual domain macro name (and which is defined to be callable) will be
     executed or called when it is processed.  In this case the argument,
     although the name of a macro, is not preceded by a `.' (dot).  This makes
     it possible to nest macros; for example the option macro, `.Op', may call
     the flag and argument macros, `Fl' and `Ar', to specify an optional flag
     with an argument:

	   [-s bytes]  is produced by `.Op Fl s Ar bytes'

     To prevent a string from being interpreted as a macro name, precede the
     string with the escape sequence `\&':

	   [Fl s Ar bytes]  is produced by `.Op \&Fl s \&Ar bytes'

     Here the strings `Fl' and `Ar' are not interpreted as macros.  Macros
     whose argument lists are parsed for callable arguments are referred to as
     parsed and macros which may be called from an argument list are referred
     to as callable throughout this document.  This is a technical faux pas as
     almost all of the macros in -mdoc are parsed, but as it was cumbersome to
     constantly refer to macros as being callable and being able to call other
     macros, the term parsed has been used.

     In the following, we call an -mdoc macro which starts a line (with a
     leading dot) a command if this distinction is necessary.

   Passing Space Characters in an Argument    [Toc]    [Back]
     Sometimes it is desirable to give as an argument a string containing one
     or more blank space characters, say, to specify arguments to commands
     which expect particular arrangement of items in the argument list.  Additionally,
 it makes -mdoc working faster.  For example, the function command
 `.Fn' expects the first argument to be the name of a function and
     any remaining arguments to be function parameters.  As ANSI C stipulates
     the declaration of function parameters in the parenthesized parameter
     list, each parameter is guaranteed to be at minimum a two word string.
     For example, int foo.

     There are two possible ways to pass an argument which contains an embedded
 space.  One way of passing a string containing blank spaces is to use
     the hard or unpaddable space character `\ ', that is, a blank space preceded
 by the escape character `\'.  This method may be used with any
     macro but has the side effect of interfering with the adjustment of text
     over the length of a line.  Troff sees the hard space as if it were any
     other printable character and cannot split the string into blank or newline
 separated pieces as one would expect.  This method is useful for
     strings which are not expected to overlap a line boundary.  An alternative
 is to use `\~', a paddable (i.e. stretchable), unbreakable space
     (this is a GNU troff(1) extension).  The second method is to enclose the
     string with double quotes.

     For example:

	   fetch(char *str)  is created by `.Fn fetch char\ *str'

	   fetch(char *str)  can also be created by `.Fn fetch "char *str"'

     If the `\' before the space in the first example or double quotes in the
     second example were omitted, `.Fn' would see three arguments, and the
     result would be:

	   fetch(char, *str)

   Trailing Blank Space Characters    [Toc]    [Back]
     Troff can be confused by blank space characters at the end of a line.  It
     is a wise preventive measure to globally remove all blank spaces from
     <blank-space><end-of-line> character sequences.  Should the need arise to
     use a blank character at the end of a line, it may be forced with an
     unpaddable space and the `\&' escape character.  For example,
     `string\ \&'.

   Escaping Special Characters    [Toc]    [Back]
     Special characters like the newline character `\n' are handled by replacing
 the `\' with `\e' (e.g. `\en') to preserve the backslash.

   Other Possible Pitfalls    [Toc]    [Back]
     A warning is emitted when an empty input line is found outside of displays
 (see below).  Use `.sp' instead.  (Well, it is even better to use
     -mdoc macros to avoid the usage of low-level commands.)

     Leading spaces will cause a break and are output directly.  Avoid this
     behaviour if possible.  Similarly, do not use more than one space character
 between words in an ordinary text line; contrary to other text formatters,
 they are not replaced with a single space.

     You can't pass `"' directly as an argument.  Use `\*[q]' (or `\*q')

     By default, troff(1) inserts two space characters after a punctuation
     mark closing a sentence; characters like `)' or `'' are treated transparently,
 not influencing the sentence-ending behaviour.  To change this,
     insert `\&' before or after the dot:

	   .Ql .
	   .Ql \&.
	   .No test .
	   .No test.


	   The `'.  character

	   The `.' character.

	   test.  test

	   test. test

     As can be seen in the first and third line, -mdoc handles punctuation
     characters specially in macro arguments.  This will be explained in section
 General Syntax below.  In the same way, you have to protect trailing
     full stops of abbreviations with a trailing zero-width space: `e.g.\&'.

     A comment in the source file of a man page can be either started with
     `.\"' on a single line, `\"' after some input, or `\#' anywhere (the latter
 is a GNU troff(1) extension); the rest of such a line is ignored.


     The body of a man page is easily constructed from a basic template:

	   .\" The following commands are required for all man pages.
	   .Dd Month day, year
	   .Os [OPERATING_SYSTEM] [version/release]
	   .Dt DOCUMENT_TITLE [section number] [architecture/volume]
	   .Sh NAME
	   .Nm name
	   .Nd one line description of name
	   .\" This next command is for sections 2 and 3 only.
	   .\" .Sh LIBRARY
	   .\" The following commands should be uncommented and
	   .\" used where appropriate.
	   .\" This next command is for sections 2, 3 and 9 function
	   .\" return values only.
	   .\" This next command is for sections 1, 6, 7 and 8 only.
	   .\" .Sh FILES
	   .\" .Sh EXAMPLES
	   .\" This next command is for sections 1, 6, 7, 8 and 9 only
	   .\"	   (command return values (to shell) and
	   .\"	   fprintf/stderr type diagnostics).
	   .\" This next command is for sections 2, 3 and 9 error
	   .\"	   and signal handling only.
	   .\" .Sh ERRORS
	   .\" .Sh SEE ALSO
	   .\" .Sh STANDARDS
	   .\" .Sh HISTORY
	   .\" .Sh AUTHORS
	   .\" .Sh BUGS

     The first items in the template are the commands `.Dd', `.Os', and `.Dt';
     the document date, the operating system the man page or subject source is
     developed or modified for, and the man page title (in upper case) along
     with the section of the manual the page belongs in.  These commands identify
 the page and are discussed below in TITLE MACROS.

     The remaining items in the template are section headers (.Sh); of which
     NAME, SYNOPSIS, and DESCRIPTION are mandatory.  The headers are discussed
     in PAGE STRUCTURE DOMAIN, after presentation of MANUAL DOMAIN.  Several
     content macros are used to demonstrate page layout macros; reading about
     content macros before page layout macros is recommended.

CONVENTIONS    [Toc]    [Back]

     In the description of all macros below, optional arguments are put into
     brackets.	An ellipsis (`...') represents zero or more additional arguments.
  Alternative values for a parameter are separated with `|'.  If
     there are alternative values for a mandatory parameter, braces are used
     (together with `|') to enclose the value set.  Meta-variables are specified
 within angles.


	   .Xx <foo> {bar1 | bar2} [-test1 [-test2 | -test3]] ...

     Except stated explicitly, all macros are parsed and callable.

     Note that a macro takes effect up to the next nested macro.  For example,
     `.Ic foo Aq bar' doesn't produce `foo <bar>' but `foo <bar>'.  Consequently,
 a warning message is emitted for most commands if the first
     argument is a macro itself since it cancels the effect of the calling
     command completely.  Another consequence is that quoting macros never
     insert literal quotes; `foo <bar>' has been produced by `.Ic "foo

     Most macros have a default width value which can be used to specify a
     label width (-width) or offset (-offset) for the `.Bl' and `.Bd' macros.
     It is recommended not to use this rather obscure feature to avoid dependencies
 on local modifications of the -mdoc package.

TITLE MACROS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The title macros are part of the page structure domain but are presented
     first and separately for someone who wishes to start writing a man page
     yesterday.  Three header macros designate the document title or manual
     page title, the operating system, and the date of authorship.  These
     macros are called once at the very beginning of the document and are used
     to construct headers and footers only.

     .Dt [<document title>] [<section number>] [<volume>]
	     The document title is the subject of the man page and must be in
	     CAPITALS due to troff limitations.  If omitted, `UNTITLED' is
	     used.  The section number may be a number in the range 1, ..., 9
	     or `unass', `draft', or `paper'.  If it is specified, and no volume
 name is given, a default volume name is used.

	     Under FreeBSD 5.2.1, the following sections are defined:

		   1	    FreeBSD General Commands Manual
		   2	    FreeBSD System Calls Manual
		   3	    FreeBSD Library Functions Manual
		   4	    FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual
		   5	    FreeBSD File Formats Manual
		   6	    FreeBSD Games Manual
		   7	    FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual
		   8	    FreeBSD System Manager's Manual
		   9	    FreeBSD Kernel Developer's Manual

	     A volume name may be arbitrary or one of the following:

		   USD	    User's Supplementary Documents
		   PS1	    Programmer's Supplementary Documents
		   AMD	    Ancestral Manual Documents
		   SMM	    System Manager's Manual
		   URM	    User's Reference Manual
		   PRM	    Programmer's Manual
		   KM	    Kernel Manual
		   IND	    Manual Master Index
		   LOCAL    Local Manual
		   CON	    Contributed Software Manual

	     For compatibility, `MMI' can be used for `IND', and `LOC' for
	     `LOCAL'.  Values from the previous table will specify a new volume
 name.	If the third parameter is a keyword designating a computer
 architecture, its value is prepended to the default volume
	     name as specified by the second parameter.  By default, the following
 architecture keywords are defined:

		   alpha, amiga, arc, arm26, arm32, atari, bebox, cobalt,
		   evbsh3, hp300, hpcmips, i386, luna68k, m68k, mac68k,
		   macppc, mips, mmeye, mvme68k, news68k, newsmips, next68k,
		   ofppc, pc532, pmax, powerpc, prep, sgimips, sh3, sparc,
		   sparc64, sun3, tahoe, vax, x68k

	     If the section number is neither a numeric expression in the
	     range 1 to 9 nor one of the above described keywords, the third
	     parameter is used verbatim as the volume name.

	     In the following examples, the left (which is identical to the
	     right) and the middle part of the manual page header strings are
	     shown.  Note how `\&' prevents the digit 7 from being a valid
	     numeric expression.

		   .Dt FOO 7	   `FOO(7)' `FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information
		   .Dt FOO 7 bar   `FOO(7)' `FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information
		   .Dt FOO \&7 bar
				   `FOO(7)' `bar'
		   .Dt FOO 2 i386  `FOO(2)' `FreeBSD/i386 System Calls Manual'
		   .Dt FOO "" bar  `FOO' `bar'

	     Local, OS-specific additions might be found in the file
	     mdoc.local; look for strings named `volume-ds-XXX' (for the former
 type) and `volume-as-XXX' (for the latter type); `XXX' then
	     denotes the keyword to be used with the `.Dt' macro.

	     This macro is neither callable nor parsed.

     .Os [<operating system>] [<release>]
	     If the first parameter is empty, the default `FreeBSD 5.2.1' is
	     used.  This may be overridden in the local configuration file,
	     mdoc.local.  In general, the name of the operating system should
	     be the common acronym, e.g. BSD or ATT.  The release should be
	     the standard release nomenclature for the system specified.  In
	     the following table, the possible second arguments for some predefined
 operating systems are listed.  Similar to `.Dt', local
	     additions might be defined in mdoc.local; look for strings named
	     `operating-system-XXX-YYY', where `XXX' is the acronym for the
	     operating system and `YYY' the release ID.

		   ATT	    7th, 7, III, 3, V, V.2, V.3, V.4

		   BSD	    3, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.3t, 4.3T, 4.3r, 4.3R, 4.4

		   NetBSD   0.8, 0.8a, 0.9, 0.9a, 1.0, 1.0a, 1.1, 1.2, 1.2a,
			    1.2b, 1.2c, 1.2d, 1.2e, 1.3, 1.3a, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6

		   FreeBSD  1.0, 1.1, 1.1.5,, 2.0, 2.0.5, 2.1, 2.1.5,
			    2.1.6, 2.1.7, 2.2, 2.2.1, 2.2.2, 2.2.5, 2.2.6,
			    2.2.7, 2.2.8, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 4.0,
			    4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 5.0

	     For ATT, an unknown second parameter will be replaced with the
	     string UNIX; for the other predefined acronyms it will be ignored
	     and a warning message emitted.  Unrecognized arguments are displayed
 as given in the page footer.  For instance, a typical
	     footer might be:

		   .Os BSD 4.3

	     giving `4.3 Berkeley Distribution', or for a locally produced set

		   .Os CS Department

	     which will produce `CS Department'.

	     If the `.Os' macro is not present, the bottom left corner of the
	     manual page will be ugly.

	     This macro is neither callable nor parsed.

     .Dd [<month> <day>, <year>]
	     If `Dd' has no arguments, `Epoch' is used for the date string.
	     If it has exactly three arguments, they are concatenated, separated
 with unbreakable space:

		   .Dd January 25, 2001

	     Otherwise, the current date is used, ignoring the parameters.

	     This macro is neither callable nor parsed.


   What's in a Name...
     The manual domain macro names are derived from the day to day informal
     language used to describe commands, subroutines and related files.
     Slightly different variations of this language are used to describe the
     three different aspects of writing a man page.  First, there is the
     description of -mdoc macro command usage.	Second is the description of a
     UNIX command with -mdoc macros, and third, the description of a command
     to a user in the verbal sense; that is, discussion of a command in the
     text of a man page.

     In the first case, troff(1) macros are themselves a type of command; the
     general syntax for a troff command is:

	   .Xx argument1 argument2 ...

     `.Xx' is a macro command, and anything following it are arguments to be
     processed.  In the second case, the description of a UNIX command using
     the content macros is a bit more involved; a typical SYNOPSIS command
     line might be displayed as:

	   filter [-flag] <infile> <outfile>

     Here, filter is the command name and the bracketed string -flag is a flag
     argument designated as optional by the option brackets.  In -mdoc terms,
     <infile> and <outfile> are called meta arguments; in this example, the
     user has to replace the meta expressions given in angle brackets with
     real file names.  Note that in this document meta arguments are used to
     describe -mdoc commands; in most man pages, meta variables are not
     specifically written with angle brackets.	The macros which formatted the
     above example:

	   .Nm filter
	   .Op Fl flag
	   .Ao Ar infile Ac Ao Ar outfile Ac

     In the third case, discussion of commands and command syntax includes
     both examples above, but may add more detail.  The arguments <infile> and
     <outfile> from the example above might be referred to as operands or file
     arguments.  Some command line argument lists are quite long:

	   make  [-eiknqrstv] [-D variable] [-d flags] [-f makefile] [-I
		 directory] [-j max_jobs] [variable=value] [target ...]

     Here one might talk about the command make and qualify the argument,
     makefile, as an argument to the flag, -f, or discuss the optional file
     operand target.  In the verbal context, such detail can prevent confusion,
 however the -mdoc package does not have a macro for an argument to
     a flag.  Instead the `Ar' argument macro is used for an operand or file
     argument like target as well as an argument to a flag like variable.  The
     make command line was produced from:

	   .Nm make
	   .Op Fl eiknqrstv
	   .Op Fl D Ar variable
	   .Op Fl d Ar flags
	   .Op Fl f Ar makefile
	   .Op Fl I Ar directory
	   .Op Fl j Ar max_jobs
	   .Op Ar variable Ns = Ns Ar value
	   .Op Ar target ...

     The `.Bk' and `.Ek' macros are explained in Keeps.

   General Syntax    [Toc]    [Back]
     The manual domain and general text domain macros share a similar syntax
     with a few minor deviations; most notably, `.Ar', `.Fl', `.Nm', and `.Pa'
     differ only when called without arguments; and `.Fn' and `.Xr' impose an
     order on their argument lists.  All content macros are capable of recognizing
 and properly handling punctuation, provided each punctuation character
 is separated by a leading space.  If a command is given:

	   .Ar sptr, ptr),

     The result is:

	   sptr, ptr),

     The punctuation is not recognized and all is output in the font used by
     `.Ar'.  If the punctuation is separated by a leading white space:

	   .Ar sptr , ptr ) ,

     The result is:

	   sptr, ptr),

     The punctuation is now recognized and output in the default font distinguishing
 it from the argument strings.  To remove the special meaning
     from a punctuation character escape it with `\&'.

     The following punctuation characters are recognized by -mdoc:

	       .	 ,	   :	     ;	       (
	       )	 [	   ]	     ?	       !

     Troff is limited as a macro language, and has difficulty when presented
     with a string containing a member of the mathematical, logical or quotation


     The problem is that troff may assume it is supposed to actually perform
     the operation or evaluation suggested by the characters.  To prevent the
     accidental evaluation of these characters, escape them with `\&'.	Typical
 syntax is shown in the first content macro displayed below, `.Ad'.

MANUAL DOMAIN    [Toc]    [Back]

     The address macro identifies an address construct.

	   Usage: .Ad <address> ...

		    .Ad addr1		addr1
		    .Ad addr1 . 	addr1.
		    .Ad addr1 , file2	addr1, file2
		    .Ad f1 , f2 , f3 :	f1, f2, f3:
		    .Ad addr ) ) ,	addr)),

     The default width is 12n.

   Author Name    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.An' macro is used to specify the name of the author of the item
     being documented, or the name of the author of the actual manual page.

	   Usage: .An <author name> ...

		    .An "Joe Author"	    Joe Author

		    .An "Joe Author" ,	    Joe Author,

		    .An "Joe Author" Aq nobody@FreeBSD.org
					    Joe Author <nobody@FreeBSD.org>

		    .An "Joe Author" ) ) ,  Joe Author)),

     The default width is 12n.

     In the AUTHORS section, the `.An' command causes a line break allowing
     each new name to appear on its own line.  If this is not desirable,

	   .An -nosplit

     call will turn this off.  To turn splitting back on, write

	   .An -split

   Arguments    [Toc]    [Back]
     The .Ar argument macro may be used whenever an argument is referenced.
     If called without arguments, the `file ...' string is output.

	   Usage: .Ar [<argument>] ...

		    .Ar 	     file ...
		    .Ar file1	     file1
		    .Ar file1 .      file1.
		    .Ar file1 file2  file1 file2
		    .Ar f1 f2 f3 :   f1 f2 f3:
		    .Ar file ) ) ,   file)),

     The default width is 12n.

   Configuration Declaration (Section Four Only)    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Cd' macro is used to demonstrate a config(8) declaration for a
     device interface in a section four manual.

	   Usage: .Cd <argument> ...

		    .Cd "device le0 at scode?"	device le0 at scode?

     In the SYNOPSIS section a `.Cd' command causes a line break before and
     after its arguments are printed.

     The default width is 12n.

   Command Modifiers    [Toc]    [Back]
     The command modifier is identical to the `.Fl' (flag) command with the
     exception that the `.Cm' macro does not assert a dash in front of every
     argument.	Traditionally flags are marked by the preceding dash, however,
     some commands or subsets of commands do not use them.  Command modifiers
     may also be specified in conjunction with interactive commands such as
     editor commands.  See Flags.

     The default width is 10n.

   Defined Variables    [Toc]    [Back]
     A variable (or constant) which is defined in an include file is specified
     by the macro `.Dv'.

	   Usage: .Dv <defined variable> ...


     The default width is 12n.

     The `.Er' errno macro specifies the error return value for section 2, 3,
     and 9 library routines.  The second example below shows `.Er' used with
     the `.Bq' general text domain macro, as it would be used in a section two
     manual page.

	   Usage: .Er <errno type> ...

		    .Er ENOENT	    ENOENT
		    .Er ENOENT ) ;  ENOENT);

     The default width is 17n.

   Environment Variables    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Ev' macro specifies an environment variable.

	   Usage: .Ev <argument> ...

		    .Ev DISPLAY        DISPLAY
		    .Ev PATH .	       PATH.
		    .Ev PRINTER ) ) ,  PRINTER)),

     The default width is 15n.

   Flags    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Fl' macro handles command line flags.  It prepends a dash, `-', to
     the flag.	For interactive command flags, which are not prepended with a
     dash, the `.Cm' (command modifier) macro is identical, but without the

	   Usage: .Fl <argument> ...

		    .Fl 	 -
		    .Fl cfv	 -cfv
		    .Fl cfv .	 -cfv.
		    .Cm cfv .	 cfv.
		    .Fl s v t	 -s -v -t
		    .Fl - ,	 --,
		    .Fl xyz ) ,  -xyz),
		    .Fl |	 - |

     The `.Fl' macro without any arguments results in a dash representing
     stdin/stdout.  Note that giving `.Fl' a single dash will result in two

     The default width is 12n.

   Function Declarations    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Fd' macro is used in the SYNOPSIS section with section two or three
     functions.  It is neither callable nor parsed.

	   Usage: .Fd <argument> ...

		    .Fd "#include <sys/types.h>"  #include <sys/types.h>

     In the SYNOPSIS section a `.Fd' command causes a line break if a function
     has already been presented and a break has not occurred.  This leaves a
     nice vertical space in between the previous function call and the declaration
 for the next function.

     The `.In' macro, while in the SYNOPSIS section, represents the #include
     statement, and is the short form of the above example.  It specifies the
     C header file as being included in a C program.  It also causes a line

     While not in the SYNOPSIS section, it represents the header file enclosed
     in angle brackets.

	   Usage: .In <header file>

		    .In stdio.h  #include <stdio.h>
		    .In stdio.h  <stdio.h>

   Function Types    [Toc]    [Back]
     This macro is intended for the SYNOPSIS section.  It may be used anywhere
     else in the man page without problems, but its main purpose is to present
     the function type in kernel normal form for the SYNOPSIS of sections two
     and three (it causes a line break, allowing the function name to appear
     on the next line).

	   Usage: .Ft <type> ...

		    .Ft struct stat  struct stat

   Functions (Library Routines)    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Fn' macro is modeled on ANSI C conventions.

	   Usage: .Fn <function> [<parameter>] ...

		    .Fn getchar 	     getchar()
		    .Fn strlen ) ,	     strlen()),
		    .Fn align "char *ptr" ,  align(char *ptr),

     Note that any call to another macro signals the end of the `.Fn' call (it
     will insert a closing parenthesis at that point).

     For functions with many parameters (which is rare), the macros `.Fo'
     (function open) and `.Fc' (function close) may be used with `.Fa' (function


	   .Ft int
	   .Fo res_mkquery
	   .Fa "int op"
	   .Fa "char *dname"
	   .Fa "int class"
	   .Fa "int type"
	   .Fa "char *data"
	   .Fa "int datalen"
	   .Fa "struct rrec *newrr"
	   .Fa "char *buf"
	   .Fa "int buflen"


	   int res_mkquery(int op, char *dname, int class, int type,
	   char *data, int datalen, struct rrec *newrr, char *buf, int buflen)

     In the SYNOPSIS section, the function will always begin at the beginning
     of line.  If there is more than one function presented in the SYNOPSIS
     section and a function type has not been given, a line break will occur,
     leaving a nice vertical space between the current function name and the
     one prior.

     The default width values of `.Fn' and `.Fo' are 12n and 16n, respectively.

   Function Arguments    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Fa' macro is used to refer to function arguments (parameters) outside
 of the SYNOPSIS section of the manual or inside the SYNOPSIS section
     if the enclosure macros `.Fo' and `.Fc' instead of `.Fn' are used.  `.Fa'
     may also be used to refer to structure members.

	   Usage: .Fa <function argument> ...

		    .Fa d_namlen ) ) ,	d_namlen)),
		    .Fa iov_len 	iov_len

     The default width is 12n.

   Return Values    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Rv' macro generates text for use in the RETURN VALUES section.

	   Usage: .Rv [-std] [<function> ...]

     For example, `.Rv -std atexit' produces:

	    The atexit() function returns the value 0 if successful; otherwise
	    the value -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set to
	    indicate the error.

     The -std option is valid only for manual page sections 2 and 3.  Currently,
 this macro does nothing if used without the -std flag.

   Exit Status    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Ex' macro generates text for use in the DIAGNOSTICS section.

	   Usage: .Ex [-std] [<utility> ...]

     For example, `.Ex -std cat' produces:

	    The cat utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

     The -std option is valid only for manual page sections 1, 6 and 8.  Currently,
 this macro does nothing if used without the -std flag.

   Interactive Commands    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Ic' macro designates an interactive or internal command.

	   Usage: .Ic <argument> ...

		    .Ic :wq		   :wq
		    .Ic "do while {...}"   do while {...}
		    .Ic setenv , unsetenv  setenv, unsetenv

     The default width is 12n.

   Library Names    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Lb' macro is used to specify the library where a particular function
 is compiled in.

	   Usage: .Lb <argument> ...

     Available arguments to `.Lb' and their results are:

	   libarm32	ARM32 Architecture Library (libarm32, -larm32)
	   libc 	Standard C Library (libc, -lc)
	   libcompat	Compatibility Library (libcompat, -lcompat)
	   libcrypt	Crypt Library (libcrypt, -lcrypt)
	   libcurses	Curses Library (libcurses, -lcurses)
	   libedit	Line Editor and History Library (libedit, -ledit)
	   libi386	i386 Architecture Library (libi386, -li386)
	   libipsec	IPsec Policy Control Library (libipsec, -lipsec)
	   libkvm	Kernel Data Access Library (libkvm, -lkvm)
	   libm 	Math Library (libm, -lm)
	   libmenu	Curses Menu Library (libmenu, -lmenu)
	   libossaudio	OSS Audio Emulation Library (libossaudio, -lossaudio)
	   libposix	POSIX Compatibility Library (libposix, -lposix)
	   libresolv	DNS Resolver Library (libresolv, -lresolv)
	   libtermcap	Termcap Access Library (libtermcap, -ltermcap)
	   libutil	System Utilities Library (libutil, -lutil)
	   libz 	Compression Library (libz, -lz)

     Local, OS-specific additions might be found in the file mdoc.local; look
     for strings named `str-Lb-XXX'.  `XXX' then denotes the keyword to be
     used with the `.Lb' macro.

     In the LIBRARY section an `.Lb' command causes a line break before and
     after its arguments are printed.

   Literals    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Li' literal macro may be used for special characters, variable constants,
 etc. -- anything which should be displayed as it would be typed.

	   Usage: .Li <argument> ...

		    .Li \en	     \n
		    .Li M1 M2 M3 ;   M1 M2 M3;
		    .Li cntrl-D ) ,  cntrl-D),
		    .Li 1024 ...     1024 ...

     The default width is 16n.

   Names    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Nm' macro is used for the document title or subject name.  It has
     the peculiarity of remembering the first argument it was called with,
     which should always be the subject name of the page.  When called without
     arguments, `.Nm' regurgitates this initial name for the sole purpose of
     making less work for the author.  Note: A section two or three document
     function name is addressed with the `.Nm' in the NAME section, and with
     `.Fn' in the SYNOPSIS and remaining sections.  For interactive commands,
     such as the `while' command keyword in csh(1), the `.Ic' macro should be
     used.  While `.Ic' is nearly identical to `.Nm', it can not recall the
     first argument it was invoked with.

	   Usage: .Nm [<argument>] ...

		    .Nm groff_mdoc  groff_mdoc
		    .Nm \-mdoc	    -mdoc
		    .Nm foo ) ) ,   foo)),
		    .Nm :	    groff_mdoc:

     The default width is 10n.

   Options    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Op' macro places option brackets around any remaining arguments on
     the command line, and places any trailing punctuation outside the brackets.
  The macros `.Oo' and `.Oc' (which produce an opening and a closing
     option bracket respectively) may be used across one or more lines or to
     specify the exact position of the closing parenthesis.

	   Usage: .Op [<option>] ...

		    .Op 			       []
		    .Op Fl k			       [-k]
		    .Op Fl k ) .		       [-k]).
		    .Op Fl k Ar kookfile	       [-k kookfile]
		    .Op Fl k Ar kookfile ,	       [-k kookfile],
		    .Op Ar objfil Op Ar corfil	       [objfil [corfil]]
		    .Op Fl c Ar objfil Op Ar corfil ,  [-c objfil [corfil]],
		    .Op word1 word2		       [word1 word2]
		    .Li .Op Oo Ao option Ac Oc ...     .Op [<options>] ...

     Here a typical example of the `.Oo' and `.Oc' macros:

	   .Op Fl k Ar kilobytes
	   .Op Fl i Ar interval
	   .Op Fl c Ar count


	   [[-k kilobytes] [-i interval] [-c count]]

     The default width values of `.Op' and `.Oo' are 14n and 10n, respectively.

   Pathnames    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Pa' macro formats path or file names.  If called without arguments,
     the `~' string is output, which represents the current user's home directory.

	   Usage: .Pa [<pathname>] ...

		    .Pa 		   ~
		    .Pa /usr/share	   /usr/share
		    .Pa /tmp/fooXXXXX ) .  /tmp/fooXXXXX).

     The default width is 32n.

   Standards    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.St' macro replaces standard abbreviations with their formal names.

	   Usage: .St <abbreviation> ...

     Available pairs for ``Abbreviation/Formal Name'' are:


	   -ansiC	  ANSI X3.159-1989 (``ANSI C'')
	   -ansiC-89	  ANSI X3.159-1989 (``ANSI C'')
	   -isoC	  ISO/IEC 9899:1990 (``ISO C89'')
	   -isoC-99	  ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (``ISO C99'')

     POSIX Part 1: System API

	   -iso9945-1-90   ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 (``POSIX.1'')
	   -iso9945-1-96   ISO/IEC 9945-1:1996 (``POSIX.1'')
	   -p1003.1	   IEEE Std 1003.1 (``POSIX.1'')
	   -p1003.1-88	   IEEE Std 1003.1-1988 (``POSIX.1'')
	   -p1003.1-90	   ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 (``POSIX.1'')
	   -p1003.1-96	   ISO/IEC 9945-1:1996 (``POSIX.1'')
	   -p1003.1b-93    IEEE Std 1003.1b-1993 (``POSIX.1'')
	   -p1003.1c-95    IEEE Std 1003.1c-1995 (``POSIX.1'')
	   -p1003.1g-2000  IEEE Std 1003.1g-2000 (``POSIX.1'')
	   -p1003.1i-95    IEEE Std 1003.1i-1995 (``POSIX.1'')

     POSIX Part 2: Shell and Utilities

	   -iso9945-2-93   ISO/IEC 9945-2:1993 (``POSIX.2'')
	   -p1003.2	   IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'')
	   -p1003.2-92	   IEEE Std 1003.2-1992 (``POSIX.2'')
	   -p1003.2a-92    IEEE Std 1003.2a-1992 (``POSIX.2'')


	   -susv2	   Version 2 of the Single UNIX Specification
	   -svid4	   System V Interface Definition, Fourth Edition
	   -xbd5	   X/Open System Interface Definitions Issue 5
	   -xcu5	   X/Open Commands and Utilities Issue 5 (``XCU5'')
	   -xcurses4.2	   X/Open Curses Issue 4.2 (``XCURSES4.2'')
	   -xns5	   X/Open Networking Services Issue 5 (``XNS5'')
	   -xns5.2	   X/Open Networking Services Issue 5.2 (``XNS5.2'')
	   -xpg3	   X/Open Portability Guide Issue 3 (``XPG3'')
	   -xpg4	   X/Open Portability Guide Issue 4 (``XPG4'')
	   -xpg4.2	   X/Open Portability Guide Issue 4.2 (``XPG4.2'')
	   -xsh5	   X/Open System Interfaces and Headers Issue 5


	   -ieee754	   IEEE Std 754-1985
	   -iso8802-3	   ISO/IEC 8802-3:1989

   Variable Types    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Vt' macro may be used whenever a type is referenced.  In the
     SYNOPSIS section, it causes a line break (useful for old style variable

	   Usage: .Vt <type> ...

		    .Vt extern char *optarg ;  extern char *optarg;
		    .Vt FILE *		       FILE *

   Variables    [Toc]    [Back]
     Generic variable reference.

	   Usage: .Va <variable> ...

		    .Va count		  count
		    .Va settimer ,	  settimer,
		    .Va "int *prt" ) :	  int *prt):
		    .Va "char s" ] ) ) ,  char s])),

     The default width is 12n.

   Manual Page Cross References    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Xr' macro expects the first argument to be a manual page name.  The
     optional second argument, if a string (defining the manual section), is
     put into parentheses.

	   Usage: .Xr <man page name> [<section>] ...

		    .Xr mdoc	    mdoc
		    .Xr mdoc ,	    mdoc,
		    .Xr mdoc 7	    mdoc(7)
		    .Xr xinit 1x ;  xinit(1x);

     The default width is 10n.

GENERAL TEXT DOMAIN    [Toc]    [Back]

   AT&T Macro
	   Usage: .At [<version>] ...

		    .At       AT&T UNIX
		    .At v6 .  Version 6 AT&T UNIX.

     The following values for <version> are possible:

	   32v, v1, v2, v3, v4, v5, v6, v7, V, V.1, V.2, V.3, V.4

   BSD Macro    [Toc]    [Back]
	   Usage: .Bx {-alpha | -beta | -devel} ...
		  .Bx [<version> [<release>]] ...

		    .Bx 	BSD
		    .Bx 4.3 .	4.3BSD.
		    .Bx -devel	BSD (currently under development)

     <version> will be prepended to the string `BSD'.  The following values
     for <release> are possible:

	   Reno, reno, Tahoe, tahoe, Lite, lite, Lite2, lite2

   NetBSD Macro    [Toc]    [Back]
	   Usage: .Nx [<version>] ...

		    .Nx        NetBSD
		    .Nx 1.4 .  NetBSD 1.4.

     For possible values of <version> see the description of the `.Os' command
     above in section TITLE MACROS.

   FreeBSD Macro    [Toc]    [Back]
	   Usage: .Fx [<version>] ...

		    .Fx        FreeBSD
		    .Fx 2.2 .  FreeBSD 2.2.

     For possible values of <version> see the description of the `.Os' command
     above in section TITLE MACROS.

   OpenBSD Macro    [Toc]    [Back]
	   Usage: .Ox [<version>] ...

		    .Ox 1.0  OpenBSD 1.0

   BSD/OS Macro
	   Usage: .Bsx [<version>] ...

		    .Bsx 1.0  BSD/OS 1.0

   UNIX Macro    [Toc]    [Back]
	   Usage: .Ux ...

		    .Ux  UNIX

   Emphasis Macro    [Toc]    [Back]
     Text may be stressed or emphasized with the `.Em' macro.  The usual font
     for emphasis is italic.

	   Usage: .Em <argument> ...

		    .Em does not	  does not
		    .Em exceed 1024 .	  exceed 1024.
		    .Em vide infra ) ) ,  vide infra)),

     The default width is 10n.

   Font Mode    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Bf' font mode must be ended with the `.Ef' macro (the latter takes
     no arguments).  Font modes may be nested within other font modes.

     `.Bf' has the following syntax:

	   .Bf <font mode>

     <font mode> must be one of the following three types:

	   Em | -emphasis  Same as if the `.Em' macro was used for the entire
			   block of text.
	   Li | -literal   Same as if the `.Li' macro was used for the entire
			   block of text.
	   Sy | -symbolic  Same as if the `.Sy' macro was used for the entire
			   block of text.

     Both macros are neither callable nor parsed.

   Enclosure and Quoting Macros    [Toc]    [Back]
     The concept of enclosure is similar to quoting.  The object being to
     enclose one or more strings between a pair of characters like quotes or
     parentheses.  The terms quoting and enclosure are used interchangeably
     throughout this document.	Most of the one-line enclosure macros end in
     small letter `q' to give a hint of quoting, but there are a few irregularities.
	For each enclosure macro there is also a pair of open and
     close macros which end in small letters `o' and `c' respectively.

	 Quote	 Open	 Close	Function		  Result
	 .Aq	 .Ao	 .Ac	Angle Bracket Enclosure   <string>
	 .Bq	 .Bo	 .Bc	Bracket Enclosure	  [string]
	 .Brq	 .Bro	 .Brc	Brace Enclosure 	  {string}
	 .Dq	 .Do	 .Dc	Double Quote		  ``string''
	 .Eq	 .Eo	 .Ec	Enclose String (in XX)	  XXstringXX
	 .Pq	 .Po	 .Pc	Parenthesis Enclosure	  (string)
	 .Ql			Quoted Literal		  `string' or string
	 .Qq	 .Qo	 .Qc	Straight Double Quote	  "string"
	 .Sq	 .So	 .Sc	Single Quote		  `string'

     All macros ending with `q' and `o' have a default width value of 12n.

     .Eo, .Ec  These macros expect the first argument to be the opening and
	       closing strings respectively.

     .Es, .En  Due to the nine-argument limit in the original troff program
	       two other macros have been implemented which are now rather
	       obsolete: `.Es' takes the first and second parameter as the
	       left and right enclosure string, which are then used to enclose
	       the arguments of `.En'.	The default width value is 12n for
	       both macros.

     .Eq       The first and second arguments of this macro are the opening
	       and closing strings respectively, followed by the arguments to
	       be enclosed.

     .Ql       The quoted literal macro behaves differently in troff and nroff
	       mode.  If formatted with nroff, a quoted literal is always
	       quoted.	If formatted with troff, an item is only quoted if the
	       width of the item is less than three constant width characters.
	       This is to make short strings more visible where the font
	       change to literal (constant width) is less noticeable.

	       The default width is 16n.

     .Pf       The prefix macro suppresses the whitespace between its first
	       and second argument:

		     .Pf ( Fa name2  (name2

	       The default width is 12n.

	       The `.Ns' macro (see below) performs the analogous suffix function.

     .Ap       The `.Ap' macro inserts an apostrophe and exits any special
	       text modes, continuing in `.No' mode.

     Examples of quoting:

	   .Aq			    <>
	   .Aq Pa ctype.h ) ,	    <ctype.h>),
	   .Bq			    []
	   .Bq Em Greek , French .  [Greek, French].
	   .Dq			    ``''
	   .Dq string abc .	    ``string abc''.
	   .Dq '^[A-Z]' 	    ``'^[A-Z]'''
	   .Ql man mdoc 	    `man mdoc'
	   .Qq			    ""
	   .Qq string ) ,	    "string"),
	   .Qq string Ns ),	    "string),"
	   .Sq			    `'
	   .Sq string		    `string'
	   .Em or Ap ing	    or'ing

     For a good example of nested enclosure macros, see the `.Op' option
     macro.  It was created from the same underlying enclosure macros as those
     presented in the list above.  The `.Xo' and `.Xc' extended argument list
     macros are discussed below.

   No-Op or Normal Text Macro    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.No' macro can be used in a macro command line for parameters which
     should not be formatted.  Be careful to add `\&' to the word `No' if you
     really want that English word (and not the macro) as a parameter.

	   Usage: .No <argument> ...

		    .No test Ta with Ta tabs  test     with	tabs

     The default width is 12n.

   No-Space Macro    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Ns' macro suppresses insertion of a space between the current position
 and its first parameter.  For example, it is useful for old style
     argument lists where there is no space between the flag and argument:

	   Usage: ... <argument> Ns [<argument>] ...
		  .Ns <argument> ...

		    .Op Fl I Ns Ar directory  [-Idirectory]

     Note: The `.Ns' macro always invokes the `.No' macro after eliminating
     the space unless another macro name follows it.  If used as a command
     (i.e., the second form above in the `Usage' line), `.Ns' is identical to

   Section Cross References    [Toc]    [Back]
     The `.Sx' macro designates a reference to a section header within the
     same document.

	   Usage: .Sx <section reference> ...

		    .Sx FILES  FILES

     The default width is 16n.

   Symbolics    [Toc]    [Back]
     The symbolic emphasis macro is generally a boldface macro in either the
     symbolic sense or the traditional English usage.

	   Usage: .Sy <symbol> ...

		    .Sy Important Notice  Important Notice

     The default width is 6n.

   Mathematical Symbols    [Toc]    [Back]
     Use this macro for mathematical symbols and similar things.

	   Usage: .Ms <math symbol> ...

		    .Ms sigma  sigma

     The default width is 6n.

   References and Citations    [Toc]    [Back]
     The following macros make a modest attempt to handle references.  At
     best, the macros make it convenient to manually drop in a subset of
     refer(1) style references.

	   .Rs	   Reference start (does not take arguments).  Causes a line
		   break in the SEE ALSO section and begins collection of reference
 information until the reference end macro is read.
	   .Re	   Reference end (does not take arguments).  The reference is
	   .%A	   Reference author name; one name per invocation.
	   .%B	   Book title.
	   .%C	   City/place (not implemented yet).
	   .%D	   Date.
	   .%I	   Issuer/publisher name.
	   .%J	   Journal name.
	   .%N	   Issue number.
	   .%O	   Optional information.
	   .%P	   Page number.
	   .%Q	   Corporate or foreign author.
	   .%R	   Report name.
	   .%T	   Title of article.
	   .%V	   Volume.

     Macros beginning with `%' are not callable but accept multiple arguments
     in the usual way.	Only the `.Tn' macro is handled properly as a parameter;
 other macros will cause strange output.  `.%B' and `.%T' can be used
     outside of the `.Rs/.Re' environment.


	   .%A "Matthew Bar"
	   .%A "John Foo"
	   .%T "Implementation Notes on foobar(1)"
	   .%R "Technical Report ABC-DE-12-345"
	   .%Q "Drofnats College, Nowhere"
	   .%D "April 1991"


	   Matthew Bar and John Foo, Implementation Notes on foobar(1),
	   Technical Report ABC-DE-12-345, Drofnats College, Nowhere, April

   Trade Names (or Acronyms and Type Names)    [Toc]    [Back]
     The trade name macro prints its arguments in a smaller font.  Its
     intended use is to imitate a 

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