del_curterm, mvcur, putp, restartterm, set_curterm, setterm, setupterm,
tigetflag, tigetnum, tigetstr, tparm, tputs, vid_attr, vid_puts,
vidattr, vidputs - curses interfaces to terminfo database
int setupterm(const char *term, int fildes, int *errret);
int setterm(const char *term);
TERMINAL *set_curterm(TERMINAL *nterm);
int del_curterm(TERMINAL *oterm);
int restartterm(const char *term, int fildes, int *errret);
char *tparm(const char *str, ...);
int tputs(const char *str, int affcnt, int (*putc)(int));
int putp(const char *str);
int vidputs(chtype attrs, int (*putc)(char));
int vidattr(chtype attrs);
int vid_puts(attr_t attrs, short pair, void *opts, int (*putc)(char));
int vid_attr(attr_t attrs, short pair, void *opts);
int mvcur(int oldrow, int oldcol, int newrow, int newcol);
int tigetflag(const char *capname);
int tigetnum(const char *capname);
char *tigetstr(const char *capname);
These low-level routines must be called by programs that have to deal
directly with the terminfo database to handle certain terminal capabilities,
such as programming function keys. For all other functionality,
curses routines are more suitable and their use is recommended.
Initially, setupterm should be called. Note that setupterm is automatically
called by initscr and newterm. This defines the set of terminal-dependent
variables [listed in terminfo(5)]. The terminfo variables
lines and columns are initialized by setupterm as follows: If
use_env(FALSE) has been called, values for lines and columns specified
in terminfo are used. Otherwise, if the environment variables LINES
and COLUMNS exist, their values are used. If these environment variables
do not exist and the program is running in a window, the current
window size is used. Otherwise, if the environment variables do not
exist, the values for lines and columns specified in the terminfo database
The header files curses.h and term.h should be included (in this order)
to get the definitions for these strings, numbers, and flags. Parameterized
strings should be passed through tparm to instantiate them.
All terminfo strings [including the output of tparm] should be printed
with tputs or putp. Call the reset_shell_mode to restore the tty modes
before exiting [see curs_kernel(3X)]. Programs which use cursor
addressing should output enter_ca_mode upon startup and should output
exit_ca_mode before exiting. Programs desiring shell escapes should
reset_shell_mode and output exit_ca_mode before the shell is called and
should output enter_ca_mode and call reset_prog_mode after returning
from the shell.
The setupterm routine reads in the terminfo database, initializing the
terminfo structures, but does not set up the output virtualization
structures used by curses. The terminal type is the character string
term; if term is null, the environment variable TERM is used. All output
is to file descriptor fildes which is initialized for output. If
errret is not null, then setupterm returns OK or ERR and stores a status
value in the integer pointed to by errret. A return value of OK
combined with status of 1 in errret is normal. If ERR is returned,
1 means that the terminal is hardcopy, cannot be used for
0 means that the terminal could not be found, or that it is a
generic type, having too little information for curses
applications to run.
-1 means that the terminfo database could not be found.
If errret is null, setupterm prints an error message upon finding an
error and exits. Thus, the simplest call is:
setupterm((char *)0, 1, (int *)0);,
which uses all the defaults and sends the output to stdout.
The setterm routine is being replaced by setupterm. The call:
setupterm(term, 1, (int *)0)
provides the same functionality as setterm(term). The setterm routine
is included here for BSD compatibility, and is not recommended for new
The set_curterm routine sets the variable cur_term to nterm, and makes
all of the terminfo boolean, numeric, and string variables use the values
from nterm. It returns the old value of cur_term.
The del_curterm routine frees the space pointed to by oterm and makes
it available for further use. If oterm is the same as cur_term, references
to any of the terminfo boolean, numeric, and string variables
thereafter may refer to invalid memory locations until another
setupterm has been called.
The restartterm routine is similar to setupterm and initscr, except
that it is called after restoring memory to a previous state (for example,
when reloading a game saved as a core image dump). It assumes
that the windows and the input and output options are the same as when
memory was saved, but the terminal type and baud rate may be different.
Accordingly, it saves various tty state bits, does a setupterm, and
then restores the bits.
The tparm routine instantiates the string str with parameters pi. A
pointer is returned to the result of str with the parameters applied.
The tputs routine applies padding information to the string str and
outputs it. The str must be a terminfo string variable or the return
value from tparm, tgetstr, or tgoto. affcnt is the number of lines
affected, or 1 if not applicable. putc is a putchar-like routine to
which the characters are passed, one at a time.
The putp routine calls tputs(str, 1, putchar). Note that the output of
putp always goes to stdout, not to the fildes specified in setupterm.
The vidputs routine displays the string on the terminal in the video
attribute mode attrs, which is any combination of the attributes listed
in curses(3X). The characters are passed to the putchar-like routine
The vidattr routine is like the vidputs routine, except that it outputs
The vid_attr and vid_puts routines correspond to vidattr and vidputs,
respectively. They use a set of arguments for representing the video
attributes plus color, i.e., one of type attr_t for the attributes and
one of short for the color_pair number. The vid_attr and vid_puts routines
are designed to use the attribute constants with the WA_ prefix.
The opts argument is reserved for future use. Currently, applications
must provide a null pointer for that argument.
The mvcur routine provides low-level cursor motion. It takes effect
immediately (rather than at the next refresh).
The tigetflag, tigetnum and tigetstr routines return the value of the
capability corresponding to the terminfo capname passed to them, such
The tigetflag routine returns the value -1 if capname is not a boolean
capability, or 0 if it is canceled or absent from the terminal description.
The tigetnum routine returns the value -2 if capname is not a numeric
capability, or -1 if it is canceled or absent from the terminal
The tigetstr routine returns the value (char *)-1 if capname is not a
string capability, or 0 if it is canceled or absent from the terminal
The capname for each capability is given in the table column entitled
capname code in the capabilities section of terminfo(5).
char *boolnames, *boolcodes, *boolfnames
char *numnames, *numcodes, *numfnames
char *strnames, *strcodes, *strfnames
These null-terminated arrays contain the capnames, the termcap codes,
and the full C names, for each of the terminfo variables.
Routines that return an integer return ERR upon failure and OK (SVr4
only specifies "an integer value other than ERR") upon successful completion,
unless otherwise noted in the preceding routine descriptions.
Routines that return pointers always return NULL on error.
The setupterm routine should be used in place of setterm. It may be
useful when you want to test for terminal capabilities without committing
to the allocation of storage involved in initscr.
Note that vidattr and vidputs may be macros.
The function setterm is not described in the XSI Curses standard and
must be considered non-portable. All other functions are as described
in the XSI curses standard.
In System V Release 4, set_curterm has an int return type and returns
OK or ERR. We have chosen to implement the XSI Curses semantics.
In System V Release 4, the third argument of tputs has the type int
The XSI Curses standard prototypes tparm with a fixed number of parameters,
rather than a variable argument list. That prototype assumes
that none of the parameters are strings (or if so, that a long is big
enough to hold a pointer). The variable argument list implemented in
ncurses does not rely on that assumption.
XSI notes that after calling mvcur, the curses state may not match the
actual terminal state, and that an application should touch and refresh
the window before resuming normal curses calls. Both ncurses and System
V Release 4 curses implement mvcur using the SCREEN data allocated
in either initscr or newterm. So though it is documented as a terminfo
function, mvcur is really a curses function which is not well specified.
curses(3X), curs_initscr(3X), curs_kernel(3X), curs_termcap(3X),
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