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FTS(3)

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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     fts -- traverse a file hierarchy

LIBRARY    [Toc]    [Back]

     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/stat.h>
     #include <fts.h>

     FTS *
     fts_open(char * const *path_argv, int options,
	 int (*compar)(const FTSENT * const *, const FTSENT * const *));

     FTSENT *
     fts_read(FTS *ftsp);

     FTSENT *
     fts_children(FTS *ftsp, int options);

     int
     fts_set(FTS *ftsp, FTSENT *f, int options);

     void
     fts_set_clientptr(FTS *ftsp, void *clientdata);

     void *
     fts_get_clientptr(FTS *ftsp);

     FTS *
     fts_get_stream(FTSENT *f);

     int
     fts_close(FTS *ftsp);

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The fts functions are provided for traversing UNIX file hierarchies.  A
     simple overview is that the fts_open() function returns a ``handle'' on a
     file hierarchy, which is then supplied to the other fts functions.  The
     function fts_read() returns a pointer to a structure describing one of
     the files in the file hierarchy.  The function fts_children() returns a
     pointer to a linked list of structures, each of which describes one of
     the files contained in a directory in the hierarchy.  In general, directories
 are visited two distinguishable times; in pre-order (before any of
     their descendants are visited) and in post-order (after all of their
     descendants have been visited).  Files are visited once.  It is possible
     to walk the hierarchy ``logically'' (ignoring symbolic links) or physically
 (visiting symbolic links), order the walk of the hierarchy or prune
     and/or re-visit portions of the hierarchy.

     Two structures are defined (and typedef'd) in the include file <fts.h>.
     The first is FTS, the structure that represents the file hierarchy
     itself.  The second is FTSENT, the structure that represents a file in
     the file hierarchy.  Normally, an FTSENT structure is returned for every
     file in the file hierarchy.  In this manual page, ``file'' and ``FTSENT
     structure'' are generally interchangeable.

     The FTS structure contains space for a single pointer, which may be used
     to store application data or per-hierarchy state.	The
     fts_set_clientptr() and fts_get_clientptr() functions may be used to set
     and retrieve this pointer.  This is likely to be useful only when
     accessed from the sort comparison function, which can determine the original
 FTS stream of its arguments using the fts_get_stream() function.
     The two get functions are also available as macros of the same name.

     The FTSENT structure contains at least the following fields, which are
     described in greater detail below:

     typedef struct _ftsent {
	     u_short fts_info;		     /* flags for FTSENT structure */
	     char *fts_accpath; 	     /* access path */
	     char *fts_path;		     /* root path */
	     u_short fts_pathlen;	     /* strlen(fts_path) */
	     char *fts_name;		     /* file name */
	     u_short fts_namelen;	     /* strlen(fts_name) */
	     short fts_level;		     /* depth (-1 to N) */
	     int fts_errno;		     /* file errno */
	     long fts_number;		     /* local numeric value */
	     void *fts_pointer; 	     /* local address value */
	     struct ftsent *fts_parent;      /* parent directory */
	     struct ftsent *fts_link;	     /* next file structure */
	     struct ftsent *fts_cycle;	     /* cycle structure */
	     struct stat *fts_statp;	     /* stat(2) information */
     } FTSENT;

     These fields are defined as follows:

     fts_info	  One of the following values describing the returned FTSENT
		  structure and the file it represents.  With the exception of
		  directories without errors (FTS_D), all of these entries are
		  terminal, that is, they will not be revisited, nor will any
		  of their descendants be visited.

		  FTS_D        A directory being visited in pre-order.

		  FTS_DC       A directory that causes a cycle in the tree.
			       (The fts_cycle field of the FTSENT structure
			       will be filled in as well.)

		  FTS_DEFAULT  Any FTSENT structure that represents a file
			       type not explicitly described by one of the
			       other fts_info values.

		  FTS_DNR      A directory which cannot be read.  This is an
			       error return, and the fts_errno field will be
			       set to indicate what caused the error.

		  FTS_DOT      A file named `.' or `..' which was not specified
 as a file name to fts_open() (see
			       FTS_SEEDOT).

		  FTS_DP       A directory being visited in post-order.  The
			       contents of the FTSENT structure will be
			       unchanged from when it was returned in preorder,
 i.e. with the fts_info field set to
			       FTS_D.

		  FTS_ERR      This is an error return, and the fts_errno
			       field will be set to indicate what caused the
			       error.

		  FTS_F        A regular file.

		  FTS_NS       A file for which no stat(2) information was
			       available.  The contents of the fts_statp field
			       are undefined.  This is an error return, and
			       the fts_errno field will be set to indicate
			       what caused the error.

		  FTS_NSOK     A file for which no stat(2) information was
			       requested.  The contents of the fts_statp field
			       are undefined.

		  FTS_SL       A symbolic link.

		  FTS_SLNONE   A symbolic link with a non-existent target.
			       The contents of the fts_statp field reference
			       the file characteristic information for the
			       symbolic link itself.

     fts_accpath  A path for accessing the file from the current directory.

     fts_path	  The path for the file relative to the root of the traversal.
		  This path contains the path specified to fts_open() as a
		  prefix.

     fts_pathlen  The length of the string referenced by fts_path.

     fts_name	  The name of the file.

     fts_namelen  The length of the string referenced by fts_name.

     fts_level	  The depth of the traversal, numbered from -1 to N, where
		  this file was found.	The FTSENT structure representing the
		  parent of the starting point (or root) of the traversal is
		  numbered FTS_ROOTPARENTLEVEL (-1), and the FTSENT structure
		  for the root itself is numbered FTS_ROOTLEVEL (0).

     fts_errno	  Upon return of a FTSENT structure from the fts_children() or
		  fts_read() functions, with its fts_info field set to
		  FTS_DNR, FTS_ERR or FTS_NS, the fts_errno field contains the
		  value of the external variable errno specifying the cause of
		  the error.  Otherwise, the contents of the fts_errno field
		  are undefined.

     fts_number   This field is provided for the use of the application program
 and is not modified by the fts functions.  It is initialized
 to 0.

     fts_pointer  This field is provided for the use of the application program
 and is not modified by the fts functions.  It is initialized
 to NULL.

     fts_parent   A pointer to the FTSENT structure referencing the file in
		  the hierarchy immediately above the current file, i.e. the
		  directory of which this file is a member.  A parent structure
 for the initial entry point is provided as well, however,
 only the fts_level, fts_number and fts_pointer fields
		  are guaranteed to be initialized.

     fts_link	  Upon return from the fts_children() function, the fts_link
		  field points to the next structure in the NULL-terminated
		  linked list of directory members.  Otherwise, the contents
		  of the fts_link field are undefined.

     fts_cycle	  If a directory causes a cycle in the hierarchy (see FTS_DC),
		  either because of a hard link between two directories, or a
		  symbolic link pointing to a directory, the fts_cycle field
		  of the structure will point to the FTSENT structure in the
		  hierarchy that references the same file as the current
		  FTSENT structure.  Otherwise, the contents of the fts_cycle
		  field are undefined.

     fts_statp	  A pointer to stat(2) information for the file.

     A single buffer is used for all of the paths of all of the files in the
     file hierarchy.  Therefore, the fts_path and fts_accpath fields are guaranteed
 to be NUL-terminated only for the file most recently returned by
     fts_read().  To use these fields to reference any files represented by
     other FTSENT structures will require that the path buffer be modified
     using the information contained in that FTSENT structure's fts_pathlen
     field.  Any such modifications should be undone before further calls to
     fts_read() are attempted.	The fts_name field is always NUL-terminated.

FTS_OPEN    [Toc]    [Back]

     The fts_open() function takes a pointer to an array of character pointers
     naming one or more paths which make up a logical file hierarchy to be
     traversed.  The array must be terminated by a NULL pointer.

     There are a number of options, at least one of which (either FTS_LOGICAL
     or FTS_PHYSICAL) must be specified.  The options are selected by or'ing
     the following values:

     FTS_COMFOLLOW
		   This option causes any symbolic link specified as a root
		   path to be followed immediately whether or not FTS_LOGICAL
		   is also specified.

     FTS_LOGICAL   This option causes the fts routines to return FTSENT structures
 for the targets of symbolic links instead of the symbolic
 links themselves.  If this option is set, the only
		   symbolic links for which FTSENT structures are returned to
		   the application are those referencing non-existent files.
		   Either FTS_LOGICAL or FTS_PHYSICAL must be provided to the
		   fts_open() function.

     FTS_NOCHDIR   As a performance optimization, the fts functions change
		   directories as they walk the file hierarchy.  This has the
		   side-effect that an application cannot rely on being in any
		   particular directory during the traversal.  The FTS_NOCHDIR
		   option turns off this optimization, and the fts functions
		   will not change the current directory.  Note that applications
 should not themselves change their current directory
		   and try to access files unless FTS_NOCHDIR is specified and
		   absolute pathnames were provided as arguments to
		   fts_open().

     FTS_NOSTAT    By default, returned FTSENT structures reference file characteristic
 information (the statp field) for each file visited.
  This option relaxes that requirement as a performance
 optimization, allowing the fts functions to set the
		   fts_info field to FTS_NSOK and leave the contents of the
		   statp field undefined.

     FTS_PHYSICAL  This option causes the fts routines to return FTSENT structures
 for symbolic links themselves instead of the target
		   files they point to.  If this option is set, FTSENT structures
 for all symbolic links in the hierarchy are returned
		   to the application.	Either FTS_LOGICAL or FTS_PHYSICAL
		   must be provided to the fts_open() function.

     FTS_SEEDOT    By default, unless they are specified as path arguments to
		   fts_open(), any files named `.' or `..' encountered in the
		   file hierarchy are ignored.	This option causes the fts
		   routines to return FTSENT structures for them.

     FTS_XDEV	   This option prevents fts from descending into directories
		   that have a different device number than the file from
		   which the descent began.

     The argument compar() specifies a user-defined function which may be used
     to order the traversal of the hierarchy.  It takes two pointers to pointers
 to FTSENT structures as arguments and should return a negative value,
     zero, or a positive value to indicate if the file referenced by its first
     argument comes before, in any order with respect to, or after, the file
     referenced by its second argument.  The fts_accpath, fts_path and
     fts_pathlen fields of the FTSENT structures may never be used in this
     comparison.  If the fts_info field is set to FTS_NS or FTS_NSOK, the
     fts_statp field may not either.  If the compar() argument is NULL, the
     directory traversal order is in the order listed in path_argv for the
     root paths, and in the order listed in the directory for everything else.

FTS_READ    [Toc]    [Back]

     The fts_read() function returns a pointer to an FTSENT structure describing
 a file in the hierarchy.  Directories (that are readable and do not
     cause cycles) are visited at least twice, once in pre-order and once in
     post-order.  All other files are visited at least once.  (Hard links
     between directories that do not cause cycles or symbolic links to symbolic
 links may cause files to be visited more than once, or directories
     more than twice.)

     If all the members of the hierarchy have been returned, fts_read()
     returns NULL and sets the external variable errno to 0.  If an error
     unrelated to a file in the hierarchy occurs, fts_read() returns NULL and
     sets errno appropriately.	If an error related to a returned file occurs,
     a pointer to an FTSENT structure is returned, and errno may or may not
     have been set (see fts_info).

     The FTSENT structures returned by fts_read() may be overwritten after a
     call to fts_close() on the same file hierarchy stream, or, after a call
     to fts_read() on the same file hierarchy stream unless they represent a
     file of type directory, in which case they will not be overwritten until
     after a call to fts_read() after the FTSENT structure has been returned
     by the function fts_read() in post-order.

FTS_CHILDREN    [Toc]    [Back]

     The fts_children() function returns a pointer to an FTSENT structure
     describing the first entry in a NULL-terminated linked list of the files
     in the directory represented by the FTSENT structure most recently
     returned by fts_read().  The list is linked through the fts_link field of
     the FTSENT structure, and is ordered by the user-specified comparison
     function, if any.	Repeated calls to fts_children() will recreate this
     linked list.

     As a special case, if fts_read() has not yet been called for a hierarchy,
     fts_children() will return a pointer to the files in the logical directory
 specified to fts_open(), i.e. the arguments specified to fts_open().
     Otherwise, if the FTSENT structure most recently returned by fts_read()
     is not a directory being visited in pre-order, or the directory does not
     contain any files, fts_children() returns NULL and sets errno to zero.
     If an error occurs, fts_children() returns NULL and sets errno appropriately.


     The FTSENT structures returned by fts_children() may be overwritten after
     a call to fts_children(), fts_close() or fts_read() on the same file
     hierarchy stream.

     Option may be set to the following value:

     FTS_NAMEONLY  Only the names of the files are needed.  The contents of
		   all the fields in the returned linked list of structures
		   are undefined with the exception of the fts_name and
		   fts_namelen fields.

FTS_SET    [Toc]    [Back]

     The function fts_set() allows the user application to determine further
     processing for the file f of the stream ftsp.  The fts_set() function
     returns 0 on success, and -1 if an error occurs.  Option must be set to
     one of the following values:

     FTS_AGAIN	   Re-visit the file; any file type may be re-visited.	The
		   next call to fts_read() will return the referenced file.
		   The fts_stat and fts_info fields of the structure will be
		   reinitialized at that time, but no other fields will have
		   been changed.  This option is meaningful only for the most
		   recently returned file from fts_read().  Normal use is for
		   post-order directory visits, where it causes the directory
		   to be re-visited (in both pre and post-order) as well as
		   all of its descendants.

     FTS_FOLLOW    The referenced file must be a symbolic link.  If the referenced
 file is the one most recently returned by fts_read(),
		   the next call to fts_read() returns the file with the
		   fts_info and fts_statp fields reinitialized to reflect the
		   target of the symbolic link instead of the symbolic link
		   itself.  If the file is one of those most recently returned
		   by fts_children(), the fts_info and fts_statp fields of the
		   structure, when returned by fts_read(), will reflect the
		   target of the symbolic link instead of the symbolic link
		   itself.  In either case, if the target of the symbolic link
		   does not exist the fields of the returned structure will be
		   unchanged and the fts_info field will be set to FTS_SLNONE.

		   If the target of the link is a directory, the pre-order
		   return, followed by the return of all of its descendants,
		   followed by a post-order return, is done.

     FTS_SKIP	   No descendants of this file are visited.  The file may be
		   one of those most recently returned by either
		   fts_children() or fts_read().

FTS_CLOSE    [Toc]    [Back]

     The fts_close() function closes a file hierarchy stream ftsp and restores
     the current directory to the directory from which fts_open() was called
     to open ftsp.  The fts_close() function returns 0 on success, and -1 if
     an error occurs.

ERRORS    [Toc]    [Back]

     The function fts_open() may fail and set errno for any of the errors
     specified for the library functions open(2) and malloc(3).

     The function fts_close() may fail and set errno for any of the errors
     specified for the library functions chdir(2) and close(2).

     The functions fts_read() and fts_children() may fail and set errno for
     any of the errors specified for the library functions chdir(2),
     malloc(3), opendir(3), readdir(3) and stat(2).

     In addition, fts_children(), fts_open() and fts_set() may fail and set
     errno as follows:

     [EINVAL]		The options were invalid.

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

      
      
     find(1), chdir(2), stat(2), qsort(3)

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     The fts interface was first introduced in 4.4BSD.	The
     fts_get_clientptr(), fts_get_stream(), and fts_set_clientptr() functions
     were introduced in FreeBSD 5.0, principally to provide for alternative
     interfaces to the fts functionality using different data structures.


FreeBSD 5.2.1		      September 15, 2002		 FreeBSD 5.2.1
[ Back ]
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