NgMkSockNode, NgNameNode, NgSendMsg, NgRecvMsg, NgSendData, NgRecvData,
NgSetDebug, NgSetErrLog -- netgraph user library
Netgraph User Library (libnetgraph, -lnetgraph)
NgMkSockNode(const char *name, int *csp, int *dsp);
NgNameNode(int cs, const char *path, const char *fmt, ...);
NgSendMsg(int cs, const char *path, int cookie, int cmd, const void *arg,
NgSendAsciiMsg(int cs, const char *path, const char *fmt, ...);
NgSendMsgReply(int cs, const char *path, struct ng_mesg *msg,
const void *arg, size_t arglen);
NgRecvMsg(int cs, struct ng_mesg *rep, size_t replen, char *path);
NgRecvAsciiMsg(int cs, struct ng_mesg *rep, size_t replen, char *path);
NgSendData(int ds, const char *hook, const u_char *buf, size_t len);
NgRecvData(int ds, u_char *buf, size_t len, char *hook);
NgSetErrLog(void (*log)(const char *fmt, ...),
void (*logx)(const char *fmt, ...));
These functions facilitate user-mode program participation in the kernel
netgraph(4) graph-based networking system, by utilizing the netgraph
socket node type (see ng_socket(4)).
The NgMkSockNode() function should be called first, to create a new
socket type netgraph node with associated control and data sockets. If
name is non-NULL, the node will have that global name assigned to it.
The csp and dsp arguments will be set to the newly opened control and
data sockets associated with the node; either csp or dsp may be NULL if
only one socket is desired. The NgMkSockNode() function loads the socket
node type KLD if it's not already loaded.
The NgNameNode() function assigns a global name to the node addressed by
The NgSendMsg() function sends a binary control message from the socket
node associated with control socket cs to the node addressed by path.
The cookie indicates how to interpret cmd, which indicates a specific
command. Extra argument data (if any) is specified by arg and arglen.
The cookie, cmd, and argument data are defined by the header file corresponding
to the type of the node being addressed. The unique, non-negative
token value chosen for use in the message header is returned. This
value is typically used to associate replies.
Use NgSendMsgReply() to send reply to a previously received control message.
The original message header should be pointed to by msg.
The NgSendAsciiMsg() function performs the same function as NgSendMsg(),
but adds support for ASCII encoding of control messages. The
NgSendAsciiMsg() function formats its input a la printf(3) and then sends
the resulting ASCII string to the node in a NGM_ASCII2BINARY control message.
The node returns a binary version of the message, which is then
sent back to the node just as with NgSendMsg(). As with NgSendMsg(), the
message token value is returned. Note that ASCII conversion may not be
supported by all node types.
The NgRecvMsg() function reads the next control message received by the
node associated with control socket cs. The message and any extra argument
data must fit in replen bytes. If path is non-NULL, it must point
to a buffer of at least NG_PATHSIZ bytes, which will be filled in (and
NUL terminated) with the path to the node from which the message was
The length of the control message is returned. A return value of zero
indicates that the socket was closed.
The NgRecvAsciiMsg() function works exactly like NgRecvMsg(), except that
after the message is received, any binary arguments are converted to
ASCII by sending a NGM_BINARY2ASCII request back to the originating node.
The result is the same as NgRecvAsciiMsg(), with the exception that the
reply arguments field will contain a NUL-terminated ASCII version of the
arguments (and the reply header argument length field will be adjusted).
The NgSendData() function writes a data packet out on the specified hook
of the node corresponding to data socket ds. The node must already be
connected to some other node via that hook.
The NgRecvData() function reads the next data packet (of up to len bytes)
received by the node corresponding to data socket ds and stores it in
buf, which must be large enough to hold the entire packet. If hook is
non-NULL, it must point to a buffer of at least NG_HOOKSIZ bytes, which
will be filled in (and NUL terminated) with the name of the hook on which
the data was received.
The length of the packet is returned. A return value of zero indicates
that the socket was closed.
The NgSetDebug() and NgSetErrLog() functions are used for debugging. The
NgSetDebug() function sets the debug level (if non-negative), and returns
the old setting. Higher debug levels result in more verbosity. The
default is zero. All debug and error messages are logged via the functions
specified in the most recent call to NgSetErrLog(). The default
logging functions are vwarn(3) and vwarnx(3).
At debug level 3, the library attempts to display control message arguments
in ASCII format; however, this results in additional messages being
sent which may interfere with debugging. At even higher levels, even
these additional messages will be displayed, etc.
Note that select(2) can be used on the data and the control sockets to
detect the presence of incoming data and control messages, respectively.
Data and control packets are always written and read atomically, i.e., in
one whole piece.
User mode programs must be linked with the -lnetgraph flag to link in
To enable Netgraph in your kernel, either your kernel must be compiled
with ``options NETGRAPH'' in the kernel configuration file, or else the
netgraph(4) and ng_socket(4) KLD modules must have been loaded via
The NgSetDebug() function returns the previous debug setting. The
NgSetErrLog() function has no return value. All other functions return
-1 if there was an error and set errno accordingly. A return value of
zero from NgRecvMsg() or NgRecvData() indicates that the netgraph socket
has been closed.
For NgSendAsciiMsg() and NgRecvAsciiMsg(), the following additional
errors are possible:
[ENOSYS] The node type does not know how to encode or decode
the control message.
[ERANGE] The encoded or decoded arguments were too long for the
[ENOENT] An unknown structure field was seen in an ASCII control
[EALREADY] The same structure field was specified twice in an
ASCII control message.
[EINVAL] ASCII control message parse error or illegal value.
[E2BIG] ASCII control message array or fixed width string
select(2), socket(2), warnx(3), kld(4), netgraph(4), ng_socket(4)
The netgraph system was designed and first implemented at Whistle Communications,
Inc. in a version of FreeBSD 2.2 customized for the Whistle
Archie Cobbs <firstname.lastname@example.org>
FreeBSD 5.2.1 January 19, 1999 FreeBSD 5.2.1 [ Back ]