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NAME    [Toc]    [Back]

     last -- indicate last logins of users and ttys

SYNOPSIS    [Toc]    [Back]

     last [-swy] [-d [[CC]YY][MMDD]hhmm[.SS]] [-f file] [-h host] [-n maxrec]
	  [-t tty] [user ...]

DESCRIPTION    [Toc]    [Back]

     The last utility will either list the sessions of specified users, ttys,
     and hosts, in reverse time order, or list the users logged in at a specified
 date and time.  Each line of output contains the user name, the tty
     from which the session was conducted, any hostname, the start and stop
     times for the session, and the duration of the session.  If the session
     is still continuing or was cut short by a crash or shutdown, last will so

     The following options are available:

     -d date	 Specify the snapshot date and time.  All users logged in at
		 the snapshot date and time will be reported.  This may be
		 used with the -f option to derive the results from stored
		 wtmp files.  When this argument is provided, all other
		 options except for -f and -n are ignored.  The argument
		 should be in the form [[CC]YY][MMDD]hhmm[.SS] where each pair
		 of letters represents the following:

		       CC      The first two digits of the year (the century).
		       YY      The second two digits of the year.  If YY is
			       specified, but CC is not, a value for YY
			       between 69 and 99 results in a CC value of 19.
			       Otherwise, a CC value of 20 is used.
		       MM      Month of the year, from 1 to 12.
		       DD      Day of the month, from 1 to 31.
		       hh      Hour of the day, from 0 to 23.
		       mm      Minute of the hour, from 0 to 59.
		       SS      Second of the minute, from 0 to 61.

		 If the CC and YY letter pairs are not specified, the values
		 default to the current year.  If the SS letter pair is not
		 specified, the value defaults to 0.

     -f file	 Read the file file instead of the default, /var/log/wtmp.

     -h host	 Host names may be names or internet numbers.

     -n maxrec	 Limit the report to maxrec lines.

     -s 	 Report the duration of the login session in seconds, instead
		 of the default days, hours and minutes.

     -t tty	 Specify the tty.  Tty names may be given fully or abbreviated,
 for example, ``last -t 03'' is equivalent to ``last -t

     -w 	 Widen the duration field to show seconds, as well as the
		 default days, hours and minutes.

     -y 	 Report the year in the session start time.

     If multiple arguments are given, and a snapshot time is not specified,
     the information which applies to any of the arguments is printed, e.g.,
     ``last root -t console'' would list all of ``root's'' sessions as well as
     all sessions on the console terminal.  If no users, hostnames or terminals
 are specified, last prints a record of all logins and logouts.

     The pseudo-user reboot logs in at reboots of the system, thus ``last
     reboot'' will give an indication of mean time between reboot.

     If last is interrupted, it indicates to what date the search has progressed.
  If interrupted with a quit signal last indicates how far the
     search has progressed and then continues.

FILES    [Toc]    [Back]

     /var/log/wtmp  login data base

SEE ALSO    [Toc]    [Back]

     lastcomm(1), utmp(5), ac(8)

BUGS    [Toc]    [Back]

     If a login shell should terminate abnormally for some reason, it is
     likely that a logout record won't be written to the wtmp file.  In this
     case, last will indicate the logout time as "shutdown".

HISTORY    [Toc]    [Back]

     A last utility appeared in 3.0BSD.

FreeBSD 5.2.1			 July 27, 2003			 FreeBSD 5.2.1
[ Back ]
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