eqn  format equations for troff
eqn [ rvCNR ] [ dxy ] [ Tname ] [ Mdir ] [ fF ] [ sn ] [ pn ]
[ mn ] [ files... ]
It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its
parameter.
This manual page describes the GNU version of eqn, which is part of the
groff document formatting system. eqn compiles descriptions of equations
embedded within troff input files into commands that are understood
by troff. Normally, it should be invoked using the e option of
groff. The syntax is quite compatible with Unix eqn. The output of
GNU eqn cannot be processed with Unix troff; it must be processed with
GNU troff. If no files are given on the command line, the standard
input will be read. A filename of  will cause the standard input to
be read.
eqn searches for the file eqnrc in the directories given with the M
option first, then in /usr/share/tmac, /usr/share/tmac, and finally in
the standard macro directory /usr/share/tmac. If it exists, eqn will
process it before the other input files. The R option prevents this.
GNU eqn does not provide the functionality of neqn: it does not support
lowresolution, typewriterlike devices (although it may work adequately
for very simple input).
dxy Specify delimiters x and y for the left and right end, respectively,
of inline equations. Any delim statements in the
source file overrides this.
C Recognize .EQ and .EN even when followed by a character other
than space or newline.
N Don't allow newlines within delimiters. This option allows eqn
to recover better from missing closing delimiters.
v Print the version number.
r Only one size reduction.
mn The minimum pointsize is n. eqn will not reduce the size of
subscripts or superscripts to a smaller size than n.
Tname The output is for device name. The only effect of this is to
define a macro name with a value of 1. Typically eqnrc will use
this to provide definitions appropriate for the output device.
The default output device is ps.
Mdir Search dir for eqnrc before the default directories.
R Don't load eqnrc.
fF This is equivalent to a gfont F command.
sn This is equivalent to a gsize n command. This option is deprecated.
eqn will normally set equations at whatever the current
point size is when the equation is encountered.
pn This says that subscripts and superscripts should be n points
smaller than the surrounding text. This option is deprecated.
Normally eqn makes sets subscripts and superscripts at 70% of
the size of the surrounding text.
Only the differences between GNU eqn and Unix eqn are described here.
Most of the new features of GNU eqn are based on TeX. There are some
references to the differences between TeX and GNU eqn below; these may
safely be ignored if you do not know TeX.
Automatic spacing [Toc] [Back]
eqn gives each component of an equation a type, and adjusts the spacing
between components using that type. Possible types are:
ordinary an ordinary character such as 1 or x;
_
operator a large operator such as >;
binary a binary operator such as +;
relation a relation such as =;
opening a opening bracket such as (;
closing a closing bracket such as );
punctuation a punctuation character such as ,;
inner a subformula contained within brackets;
suppress spacing that suppresses automatic spacing adjustment.
Components of an equation get a type in one of two ways.
type t e
This yields an equation component that contains e but that has
type t, where t is one of the types mentioned above. For example,
times is defined as
type "binary" \(mu
The name of the type doesn't have to be quoted, but quoting protects
from macro expansion.
chartype t text
Unquoted groups of characters are split up into individual characters,
and the type of each character is looked up; this
changes the type that is stored for each character; it says that
the characters in text from now on have type t. For example,
chartype "punctuation" .,;:
would make the characters .,;: have type punctuation whenever
they subsequently appeared in an equation. The type t can also
be letter or digit; in these cases chartype changes the font
type of the characters. See the Fonts subsection.
New primitives [Toc] [Back]
e1 smallover e2
This is similar to over; smallover reduces the size of e1 and
e2; it also puts less vertical space between e1 or e2 and the
fraction bar. The over primitive corresponds to the TeX \over
primitive in display styles; smallover corresponds to \over in
nondisplay styles.
vcenter e
This vertically centers e about the math axis. The math axis is
the vertical position about which characters such as + and  are
centered; also it is the vertical position used for the bar of
fractions. For example, sum is defined as
{ type "operator" vcenter size +5 \(*S }
e1 accent e2
This sets e2 as an accent over e1. e2 is assumed to be at the
correct height for a lowercase letter; e2 will be moved down
according if e1 is taller or shorter than a lowercase letter.
For example, hat is defined as
accent { "^" }
dotdot, dot, tilde, vec and dyad are also defined using the
accent primitive.
e1 uaccent e2
This sets e2 as an accent under e1. e2 is assumed to be at the
correct height for a character without a descender; e2 will be
moved down if e1 has a descender. utilde is predefined using
uaccent as a tilde accent below the baseline.
split "text"
This has the same effect as simply
text
but text is not subject to macro expansion because it is quoted;
text will be split up and the spacing between individual characters
will be adjusted.
nosplit text
This has the same effect as
"text"
but because text is not quoted it will be subject to macro
expansion; text will not be split up and the spacing between
individual characters will not be adjusted.
e opprime
This is a variant of prime that acts as an operator on e. It
produces a different result from prime in a case such as
A opprime sub 1: with opprime the 1 will be tucked under the
prime as a subscript to the A (as is conventional in mathematical
typesetting), whereas with prime the 1 will be a subscript
to the prime character. The precedence of opprime is the same
as that of bar and under, which is higher than that of everything
except accent and uaccent. In unquoted text a ' that is
not the first character will be treated like opprime.
special text e
This constructs a new object from e using a troff(1) macro named
text. When the macro is called, the string 0s will contain the
output for e, and the number registers 0w, 0h, 0d, 0skern and
0skew will contain the width, height, depth, subscript kern, and
skew of e. (The subscript kern of an object says how much a
subscript on that object should be tucked in; the skew of an
object says how far to the right of the center of the object an
accent over the object should be placed.) The macro must modify
0s so that it will output the desired result with its origin at
the current point, and increase the current horizontal position
by the width of the object. The number registers must also be
modified so that they correspond to the result.
For example, suppose you wanted a construct that `cancels' an
expression by drawing a diagonal line through it.
.EQ
define cancel 'special Ca'
.EN
.de Ca
.ds 0s \Z'\\*(0s'\v'\\n(0du'\D'l \\n(0wu \\n(0hu\\n(0du'\v'\\n(0hu'
..
Then you could cancel an expression e with cancel { e }
Here's a more complicated construct that draws a box round an
expression:
.EQ
define box 'special Bx'
.EN
.de Bx
.ds 0s \Z'\h'1n'\\*(0s'\
\Z'\v'\\n(0du+1n'\D'l \\n(0wu+2n 0'\D'l 0 \\n(0hu\\n(0du2n'\
\D'l \\n(0wu2n 0'\D'l 0 \\n(0hu+\\n(0du+2n''\h'\\n(0wu+2n'
.nr 0w +2n
.nr 0d +1n
.nr 0h +1n
..
Customization [Toc] [Back]
The appearance of equations is controlled by a large number of parameters.
These can be set using the set command.
set p n
This sets parameter p to value n ; n is an integer. For example,
set x_height 45
says that eqn should assume an x height of 0.45 ems.
Possible parameters are as follows. Values are in units of hundredths
of an em unless otherwise stated. These descriptions
are intended to be expository rather than definitive.
minimum_size eqn will not set anything at a smaller
pointsize than this. The value is in
points.
fat_offset The fat primitive emboldens an equation
by overprinting two copies of the equation
horizontally offset by this amount.
over_hang A fraction bar will be longer by twice
this amount than the maximum of the
widths of the numerator and denominator;
in other words, it will overhang the
numerator and denominator by at least
this amount.
accent_width When bar or under is applied to a single
character, the line will be this long.
Normally, bar or under produces a line
whose length is the width of the object
to which it applies; in the case of a
single character, this tends to produce
a line that looks too long.
delimiter_factor Extensible delimiters produced with the
left and right primitives will have a
combined height and depth of at least
this many thousandths of twice the maximum
amount by which the subequation
that the delimiters enclose extends away
from the axis.
delimiter_shortfall Extensible delimiters produced with the
left and right primitives will have a
combined height and depth not less than
the difference of twice the maximum
amount by which the subequation that
the delimiters enclose extends away from
the axis and this amount.
null_delimiter_space This much horizontal space is inserted
on each side of a fraction.
script_space The width of subscripts and superscripts
is increased by this amount.
thin_space This amount of space is automatically
inserted after punctuation characters.
medium_space This amount of space is automatically
inserted on either side of binary operators.
thick_space This amount of space is automatically
inserted on either side of relations.
x_height The height of lowercase letters without
ascenders such as x.
axis_height The height above the baseline of the
center of characters such as + and .
It is important that this value is correct
for the font you are using.
default_rule_thickness This should set to the thickness of the
\(ru character, or the thickness of horizontal
lines produced with the \D
escape sequence.
num1 The over command will shift up the
numerator by at least this amount.
num2 The smallover command will shift up the
numerator by at least this amount.
denom1 The over command will shift down the
denominator by at least this amount.
denom2 The smallover command will shift down
the denominator by at least this amount.
sup1 Normally superscripts will be shifted up
by at least this amount.
sup2 Superscripts within superscripts or
upper limits or numerators of smallover
fractions will be shifted up by at least
this amount. This is usually less than
sup1.
sup3 Superscripts within denominators or
square roots or subscripts or lower limits
will be shifted up by at least this
amount. This is usually less than sup2.
sub1 Subscripts will normally be shifted down
by at least this amount.
sub2 When there is both a subscript and a
superscript, the subscript will be
shifted down by at least this amount.
sup_drop The baseline of a superscript will be no
more than this much amount below the top
of the object on which the superscript
is set.
sub_drop The baseline of a subscript will be at
least this much below the bottom of the
object on which the subscript is set.
big_op_spacing1 The baseline of an upper limit will be
at least this much above the top of the
object on which the limit is set.
big_op_spacing2 The baseline of a lower limit will be at
least this much below the bottom of the
object on which the limit is set.
big_op_spacing3 The bottom of an upper limit will be at
least this much above the top of the
object on which the limit is set.
big_op_spacing4 The top of a lower limit will be at
least this much below the bottom of the
object on which the limit is set.
big_op_spacing5 This much vertical space will be added
above and below limits.
baseline_sep The baselines of the rows in a pile or
matrix will normally be this far apart.
In most cases this should be equal to
the sum of num1 and denom1.
shift_down The midpoint between the top baseline
and the bottom baseline in a matrix or
pile will be shifted down by this much
from the axis. In most cases this
should be equal to axis_height.
column_sep This much space will be added between
columns in a matrix.
matrix_side_sep This much space will be added at each
side of a matrix.
draw_lines If this is nonzero, lines will be drawn
using the \D escape sequence, rather
than with the \l escape sequence and the
\(ru character.
body_height The amount by which the height of the
equation exceeds this will be added as
extra space before the line containing
the equation (using \x.) The default
value is 85.
body_depth The amount by which the depth of the
equation exceeds this will be added as
extra space after the line containing
the equation (using \x.) The default
value is 35.
nroff If this is nonzero, then ndefine will
behave like define and tdefine will be
ignored, otherwise tdefine will behave
like define and ndefine will be ignored.
The default value is 0 (This is typically
changed to 1 by the eqnrc file for
the ascii, latin1, utf8, and cp1047
devices.)
A more precise description of the role of many of these parameters
can be found in Appendix H of The TeXbook.
Macros [Toc] [Back]
Macros can take arguments. In a macro body, $n where n is between 1
and 9, will be replaced by the nth argument if the macro is called
with arguments; if there are fewer than n arguments, it will be
replaced by nothing. A word containing a left parenthesis where the
part of the word before the left parenthesis has been defined using the
define command will be recognized as a macro call with arguments; characters
following the left parenthesis up to a matching right parenthesis
will be treated as commaseparated arguments; commas inside nested
parentheses do not terminate an argument.
sdefine name X anything X
This is like the define command, but name will not be recognized
if called with arguments.
include "file"
Include the contents of file. Lines of file beginning with .EQ
or .EN will be ignored.
ifdef name X anything X
If name has been defined by define (or has been automatically
defined because name is the output device) process anything;
otherwise ignore anything. X can be any character not appearing
in anything.
Fonts [Toc] [Back]
eqn normally uses at least two fonts to set an equation: an italic font
for letters, and a roman font for everything else. The existing gfont
command changes the font that is used as the italic font. By default
this is I. The font that is used as the roman font can be changed
using the new grfont command.
grfont f
Set the roman font to f.
The italic primitive uses the current italic font set by gfont; the
roman primitive uses the current roman font set by grfont. There is
also a new gbfont command, which changes the font used by the bold
primitive. If you only use the roman, italic and bold primitives to
changes fonts within an equation, you can change all the fonts used by
your equations just by using gfont, grfont and gbfont commands.
You can control which characters are treated as letters (and therefore
set in italics) by using the chartype command described above. A type
of letter will cause a character to be set in italic type. A type of
digit will cause a character to be set in roman type.
/usr/share/tmac/eqnrc Initialization file.
Inline equations will be set at the point size that is current at the
beginning of the input line.
groff(1), troff(1), groff_font(5), The TeXbook
Groff Version 1.19 11 October 2002 EQN(1)
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